Bocas del Toro
Eco-friendly travel guide to Bocas del Toro advises how to be a responsible tourist. Learn how to explore the attractions in a sustainable way and how to respect the local people and culture. Make your trip green by supporting locally owned hotels, organic restaurants and other businesses. Read more on how to protect the environment by making conscientious choices and how to travel green in Bocas del Toro, Panama.
- Air quality: 3.8 / 5
- Exploring by foot: 3.5 / 5
- Exploring by bicycle: 3.5 / 5
- Public transportation: 3 / 5
- Parks: 4 / 5
- Outdoor activities: 4.5 / 5
- Locals' English level: 3.2 / 5
- Safety: 4.1 / 5
- Accommodation: US$12 - $30
- Budget per day: US$10 - $420
- 1 Responsible Travel
- 2 Air Quality and Pollution
- 3 Respect the Culture
- 4 Top 10 Places to Visit
- 5 Explore
- 6 Eat
- 7 Drink
- 8 Activities
- 9 Accommodation
- 10 How to Get There
- 11 Moving Around
- 12 Sustainable Shopping
- 13 Recycling
- 14 Work and Study Abroad
- 15 See Also
Are you a tourist who wants to visit Bocas Del Toro but as a responsible traveler? If yes, as a traveling enthusiast, there are specific responsibilities that you have in addition to other moral obligations. While visiting the country, you must identify and control your activities accordingly so that you don't cause any harm to the local communities or the environment.
- Try to opt for public transports and electronic vehicles like available buses, metro trains, trams, bikes, etc. These vehicles cause comparatively less harm to the environment and are also cost-efficient.
- Instead of opting for luxurious 5-star hotels and guesthouses, travelers prefer the ones that follow eco-friendly measures like renewable resources, solar electricity, recyclable products, etc. By doing so, you can keep your carbon footprint minimal during your travel.
- Also, people prefer buying and using local businesses and artists' services rather than international brands. If you want proper exposure to the local culture, traditions, crafts, and people, the local companies will help you fulfill the needful.
- After sustaining the city life, try to visit parks and green spaces that act like an oasis buzzing with energy and gleaming bright green and blue under the harsh sun. Visiting the parks makes you feel refreshed and rejuvenated.
Air Quality and Pollution
Following the planet Health Organization's guidelines, Bocas Del Toro's air quality is considered relatively safe. The original recent data indicates the country's annual mean concentration of PM2. 5 is eight µg/m3, which is lesser than ten µg/m3.
The best time to travel to Bocas is in September-October and February-March. Average temperatures in Bocas Del Toro very, very little. The island is less temperate than some — in the 10th percentile for pleasant weather — compared to tourist destinations worldwide. The busiest month for tourism in June, followed by March and July.
Respect the Culture
Bocas del Toro's area is 4,643.9 square kilometers comprising the mainland and nine main islands, and had a population of 7,366, giving it a population density of 109.4 inhabitants per square kilometer. Mainland residents who work on Colón Island travel by boat. This place is a popular tourist destination year-round. If you want to have an unforgettable dinner then Bocas del Toro will not disappoint you because it offers an ambiance for whichever occasion one wishes to have with great options that one could ever think of. From the authentic Mediterranean to Asian fusion Thai and down to the Tex-Mex will fill your palate with mouth-watering delicacies. The population of Bocas del Toro is predominantly Christian: 86% are Catholics, and 10% are Protestants. There are about 1% of Jews and Muslims.
Top 10 Places to Visit
This tropical paradise, located in northern Panama, offers a wealth of sandy beaches. Golden sun, azure waves, verdant jungles, and breathtaking views await. Here are the top 10 places that you must visit in Bocas del Toro
- Cayo Coral - Located at the south portion of the Isla Bastimentos is the perfect area to snorkel. The transparency facilitates, warm water and coral reef of this place are the things which is irresistible for the ones who love water sport. This place is only 20 minutes by boat from the Isla Colon. By reaching this place you will get disconnected from the larger cities because this place consists of no electricity. The tourist who comes over to this island for a trip has to request for lunch and dinner in the morning so that it gets ready by noon.
- Red Frog Beach - Located in Bastimentos Island, Red Frog beach is probably the most popular beach in Bocas del Toro. The beach is not only stunning, but it is effortless to get to, thus its popularity. You n do it all: relax and sunbathe on the white sand, snorkel and appreciate the coral reefs, surf their amazing waves, spotting wildlife such as sea turtles (in nesting season), monkeys, and in particular, the tiny Red Frog. To get to this fantastic beach, you need to take a water taxi from Bocas Town, or you may walk down the beautiful scenic roads to reach here.
- Bird Island - Rocky formation in the middle of the sea that serves as a bird refuge. It is three places in the Panamanian Caribbean where the pique pardo and rabijunco piquirrojo can be observed. This tourist spot is a tropical bird sanctuary. You can see terns, frigates, swallows, and gannets. Isla Pájaros is where you can see the red-billed chough, famous for its tail's long feathers. This is a sight worth seeing.
- Starfish Beach - If seeing starfish in their natural habitat is something on your bucket list, then you are in the right place. The beach instantly gained popularity among tourists due to the countless red starfish found here. The white sand, coral reefs add to the beauty of this place.
- Carenero Island - This island is the closest to Bocas Town and a place to get away a little if you want to relax. In just one minute by boat and for only $1, you will be enjoying this historic island. It's Surrounded by different establishments where you can enjoy exotic cocktails on the sea or a fantastic banquet on any terrace.
- Finca Los Monos Botanical Garden - Ten minutes for Bocas, located in the Isla Colon is this historic town with a botanical garden covering an area of 9.6 hectares along the steep part of the islands. Different types of flowering trees and lush gardens are situated over this place. The stunning view is offered by the ocean of Bocas archipelago and going west of this island you will find mangroves protecting lagoons.
- Plastic Bottle Village - located on the island of Bocas del Toro, Panama, the plastic bottle village by Robert Bezeau seeks to reduce plastic waste and reuse it by incorporating it in homes' construction. Bezeau has collected millions of plastic bottles. He then used to build a series of structures, inviting visitors to have a vacation where they can learn more about recycling, up-cycling, and other actions they can take to 'repent' for their plastic waste crimes.
- Filthy Friday Island Pub - If you're passing through Bocas Del Toro, try to participate in one of their Filthy Friday, island hopping parties. The island bar crawl takes place every Friday. Tickets are available on its website - but you can pick them up the day off in town as well.
- Isla Solarte - Located at the south of the Isla Bastimentos was this island formerly known as Nancy’s cay by pirates, settlers, and traders for a very long time. Tourist visits this place mainly for scuba diving and snorkeling. Scuba divers observe the richness of the sea by experiencing different marine species such as moray eels, lobsters, trumpet fish, and deep sea water sponges and corals.
- Boca Del Drago - It is in the northwest of Isla Colón, is one of the best beaches on the island. Just offshore from the coast is a patchy coral-and-sand sea bottom that offers good snorkeling. It's a necessary infrastructure for a pleasant stay, friendly people, and boats to explore the islands and their surroundings.
A remote yet the most beautiful part of Panama is the Bocas del Toro. This place like other islands is not unknown to the people of Panama as they come here very often for a picnic. Bocas del Toro which is the pearl of Panama’s coast must compete along with other Panamanian places such as San Blas Islands and many other beaches on this radar.
- Simon Bolivar Park - Located in the center of the Bocas der Toro city is this park where people celebrate Simon Bolivar which has a motive to show the struggle politically for independence in countries of Latin America. It is located in an unexpectedly urbanized area of Colon Island in the southern tip. The shade of the park is mainly due to the palm and mango trees which almost cover the whole area. The cemented benches are made for the locals to chat and also the children play here. A house to various government offices the Palacio Municipal is also located within a distance from this park.
- Finca Los Monos Botanical Garden - Situated on Isla Colon, ten minutes from Bocas' historic town, the botanical garden is located on 9.6 hectares (24 acres) across a narrow part of the island. Heliconias, palms, flowering trees, fruits, and spices grow in the lush gardens. Open oceans offer stunning views of the Bocas archipelago and westwards a calm lagoon protected by mangroves.
- La Amistad International Park - The international park of La Amistad extends itself past the frontier internationally into Panama. It has more forest compared to any other park. More than 75% of species that are mainly found in Costa Rica reside here. Hikers and people who love to adventure will experience a great deal by catching a glimpse of Giant anteaters, Baird’s tapirs, and all the species of cats. There are over 600 species of bird, fishes ranging over 115 species and almost 300 species of reptiles.
The national park of the Bastimentos Island - It was the first Marine Park of Panama. It was flourished in 1988, this park covers 13,226 hectares of both sea and land. Cayos Zapatillas is best known for its lovely pair of islands with spectacular snorkeling and opportunities for diving
- Playa De Las Estrellas (STARFISH BEACH) - Over the main island of Isla Colon located in the Estrella beach derive its name of the many different species of starfish that it has. It is a must-visit place because you can experience a clear vision of starfish. Unfortunately one cannot pick up a starfish unless it’s a bluff beach. The color of the sea in the Estrella beach is tranquil, which is a perfect condition for one to relax and have a chill time. The beach also consists of a number of restaurants for one to buy drinks and food of their choice.
- Red Frog Beach - This beach owes its name, how can it be otherwise, to the Red frogs you can find there. If you love sunbathing, shooting, and swimming then this place is more than enough. The most famous beach in the province is the Frog beach therefore it is a bit more crowded as compared to other beaches. The area comprised of this place is so big and spacy that you will never get cut off by the crowd. This place consists of a number of bars where you can go enjoy the happy hour and good taco.
- Nivida Bat Cave - At the Bastimentos Boat dock one can hire a boat or layout a tour with the help of a tour operator. The 20-minute journey before reaching the spectacular cave of the Bastimentos Marine park is the thing hikers wait for. The water retracts back pretty high so the visitors get wet and love to spend time here. The Nevada bat cave is the most impressive among the other bat caves located in this area.
- Bluff Beach - Turtle Beach House is located on Bluff Beach. Bluff Beach is one of the most critical sea turtle nesting grounds in Panama. The green, lush rainforest is home to monkeys, many tropical birds, and much more. This has been the terrain of surfers (and turtles), discover this once-secluded option. Playa Bluff stretches for 5km to Punta Rocosa. September through to March is sure months to enjoy the beach without worrying about the hatching turtles.
- Solarte Island - Located not more than a mile away from the Bocas del Toro is this island in the province of Panama. The famous two hundred fishing community named Ngobe Bugle resides on this island without any electricity or communication system. Water is supplied in the form of a well where the people have to pull out water bucket by bucket.
Bocas del Toro has no significant museums.
Bocas del Toro is a 'real pirate of the Caribbean' like heaven, and luckily all the travelers agree. Thus, all the ex-pats from all over the world have come to the archipelago to start a restaurant, bringing all types of flavors together.
Traditional Local Restaurants
- The Hummingbird Restaurant - The setting is unlike any other restaurant on Isla Colon. It's steps from the beach. The food and drinks are excellent!! There are several options for vegetarians. The best dishes are Saturday Argentinian BBQ, stuffed eggplant, chicken kabobs, THE CHEESECAKE!!!, the Golden Hour cocktail, and the Mexican Hamburger. Get yourself here. You'll leave better than you arrived.
- Bocart Restaurant - Chic beach bistro with an artsy flair. Reasonable prices for the elaborate dinner platters it has to offer. This place is not packed every night, and the food is delicious! If you visit Bocas or live here, this place will be worth going to and treating yourself to some beautiful flavors! The drinks service excellent. You will also love Latin music at night.
Vegetarian and Vegan
- Leaf Eaters - Leaf Eaters has two distinctive kitchens. The Leaf Eaters Kitchen serves Vegan and Vegetarian dishes. It's a perfect place to eat if you visit Bocas. The restaurant opens till 4:30 in the afternoon, so you should go for breakfast or lunch. The restaurant's gift shop is full of antiquities that make it all the more fun to visit. The food is outstanding. You will be surely impressed by the friendly service, fresh smoothies, fantastic lunch, and ended with chocolate zucchini cake. The sea looks serene and relaxing to the eyes.
- Azul Restaurant - The Caribbean fusion served especially by the Bocas Del Toro Restaurant has become a well-known place for food lovers. One can choose from the menu which consists of almost five different types of standard dinner options. The presentation of food on the table made by the staff of the restaurant is a thing to notice because of its uniqueness. The recent menu includes pumpkin ravioli, melon gazpacho, mushroom-filled steak, tuna tartare, and a handful of tasty desserts. The dining room is small just has two seating mainly for couples so that they can enjoy their evening with full fledge.
- El Pirata - Everyone will suggest EL Pirata when you ask for the best place where fried fish is cooked. The oceanic view at night beautifies the extravagance of this place and also the fish is tasty and fresh. The restaurant is situated on the water, with nice seating to watch the water taxi traffic and enjoy a cool breeze; many of the sections are available during dinner. The dishes are served hot, and the ambiance is excellent. The staff is friendly and helpful, and the location is within walking distance of town. Recommended highly by the locals.
- Ebony - Ebony serves local cuisine for tourists and locals alike. Portions are gigantic so that you may split a meal. They have specials until 5 pm with smaller amounts, so go for a late lunch or early dinner if you can. Service is typical for the region; grab their attention when you require something, and they will eagerly come to help you. The owner of the restaurant is amiable and is almost always there. Plan to spend some time in Rebony to relax, enjoy the ambiance, and do some people-watching.
Bocas offers a surprisingly various and great nightlife, with clubs and bars along the shore or just a short water ride away on Isla Carenero. Alcohols aren't hard to get in little Bocas Town, and the great thing is that most of the joints serving alcohol are on the water. That means a view and fresh breeze come with your vino, beer, or cocktail.
It is okay if the travelers don't drink tap water in Bocas del Toro as it is not safe. So, always opt for bottled water. Always take extra precautions while drinking tap water. The water might be safe to drink when it passes the sewage treatment plant, but it might pick up pollutants on its way to your tap. It's advised that you ask locals or hotel staff about the water quality.
- Bocas Coffee Shop - It's the best cafe in Bocas town. The breakfasts and lunch are good too. You can have expresso there 4-6 times per week for the last nine months. Can't beat the Boquete sourced coffee. WiFi is excellent.
- All in all, Ernesto will take care of you. Don't miss the opportunity to get your caffeine fix at this quaint and simply-named island treasure. This is excellent comfort for weary travelers. It's perhaps the only place with iced options on the menu that aren't frappes, so they don't over dilute your drink.
- Amaranto - If you want fresh cold juice concoctions along with some sweet snacks when you walk over the road, Amaranto is the perfect place for you. The juice mainly attracts customers because of the antioxidants, nutrients, and blended flavor used by them. There are different flavors of coffee, mainly five. It is the only place for having breakfast in American style with fresh cold juices and extraordinary coffee.
BOCAS BREWERY - The complex named Barco Hundido consists of a smart tiny brewpub that has nine bears in the tap of different varieties. From its most important hit the Maracuya wheat to tropical red ale and IPAs. To begin with, you should try the four beer sampler. This place has a substantial selection of microbrews. Porter, stout, IPA, even a homemade shandy, yes, please. If you want American bar food and draft beer, then this is your place. Excellent selection and price, especially at happy hour.
The coast of Panama of the Bocas del toro province surrounds its archipelago by the splendid tortoise below water. A variety of sea life can be discovered over this coral reef which covers itself with rare species of marine animals. Scuba diving over the Bocas town is one of the favorite pas time for divers from all over the world. Even if you are not a professional diver, don’t upset yourself because you can turn up to the beaches of Bocas town at any time to catch the vibe.
Yoga and Retreats
The art of practicing yoga helps in maintaining an individual's mind, body. It also helps in managing flexibility, muscle strength, and body tone. After a busy and hectic schedule, people should find a way to rejuvenate, and doing yoga is the easiest way to reduce stress. Here are the most famous yoga centers in Bocas del Toro are:
- Danuta's Holistic Therapy
- Genesis Yoga And Massages
With access to a range of quality and affordable accommodation options, you'll find the perfect place to live in Bocas del Toro. The vast majority of hostels, hotels, guesthouses, and homestays include breakfast – and nine times out of ten, this is toast topped with an egg, sugar, banana, and a cup of coffee.
- Hotel Bocas Town
- Divers Paradise Boutique Hotel
- Punta Caracol Aqua Lodge
Hostels and Guest Houses
Some people often think about what is the real difference between hotels and guest houses. A guesthouse is a small and private house given out for rent daily to give a clear idea. Guesthouses are as social as hostels in Bocas del Toro; if you are traveling with a friend, it's mostly cheaper or around the same price to get a private room.
- Bocas Condo Retails
- Tropical Suites Hotel
- Lula's Bed And Breakfast
- Life Is Good Casa
If you appreciate a place for yourself at the end of a day, an apartment or flat is the best home away from home. Furnished rooms and kitchen facilities give groups and families the flexibility to enjoy downtime separately or plan the next day's activities over a shared meal. Often available for short and long-term. Some of the famous apartments in Bocas del Toro are:
- Apartamentos Calipso
- Santuario Del Mar
Couchsurfing is a traveling group with millions of members worldwide and is the best way to experience Bocas del Toro like a local. Reach out to over hosts in Bocas del Toro to discover unique places to stay and locals to stay. Use Couchsurfing to find accommodation in Bocas del Toro, meet up with locals and travelers, and more.
Bocas del Toro's nature is quite a perfect setting for camping or glamping. Around the country, sites offer beautiful accommodation with all the modern amenities a guest needs. Some of the best camping sites in Bocas del Toro are:
- Hostal Camping La Y Griega - Bocas Town
- Coco Vivo - Bocatorito
- Cayo Zapatilla
How to Get There
There are three routes in the city, one over the lush, jagged mountains from Chiriqui and the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Buses travel both of these routes.
Air Panama flights into Bocas del Toro regularly serve from Panama City depart from the Albrook domestic airport. The flight starts at $80 each way after taxes and fees every hour. There is a $3 "environmental contribution tax" in cash at the Bocas del Toro airport. The travelers can take a private taxi from Tocumen international airport (PTY) to Albrook domestic airport (PAC) will cost approximately $35
Take a bus to Sixaola from Costa Rica - the MEPE bus company runs buses to Sixaola from San Jose and Puerto Viejo de Talamanca. Caribbean Tours runs a shuttle service to Bocas del Toro town. It departs Puerto Viejo around 8:00 am and includes hotel pickup and a van to the border. With the price of 28 dollars direct buses run over to and from Almirante. The Albrook bus terminal is the place where the traveler can book their tickets. The specific area has this rule of booking buses prior to 48 hours to the departure time. The departure of the bus from Playa Venao is about half an hour before. The earliest bus will drop you at Las Tablas. This part by part travel will cost you cheaper money as compared to direct buses. A bus ride to Chitre will cost you nearly 4 dollars.
There are no primary railway services in Bocas del Toro.
Hitchhiking in Bocas del Toro is generally safe and adventurous. The road on the northern side of Panama city is very good as compared to the roads in the south which is not at all good. Viajar is another word for hitch-hiking. the best idea while hiking is to ignore someone’s lift ride to experience a greater trip. On average Hitch-Hiking in Bocas takes less than an hour. Hitchhiking is compared faster than buses with longer rides and frequent stops.
There is a ferry from Almirante, which leaves quite early (around noon). At several times there are two ferry connections a day - the price is 1 USD. If the visitors miss it, you have to take the water taxi for 6 USD. From Bocas del Toro boat leaves from the Taxi office at 08.00 am and goes directly to San Jose and Alajuela Hotels, drop-off at SJO airport rate is $69 each way per person.
Bocas town can be walked away easily in a few days because it is not so large. If a traveler finds difficulty in walking then he/she can opt for a ride which includes shuttle buses and cabs that cost more or less 60 cents to get along over the town. Rental bicycles are available too. The money ranges as per the quality. The on-road of Bocas town is in very good condition which allows the biker to get around quite easily.
Completing Bocas town by walk in a few days is a possible task. This island’s interior is covered up with jungles, hikers find this place very much attractive but it is recommended not to do hiking as the jungle is well organized with Bocas activity. There are a lesser number of paths, even though the land has untouched beauties. Hiking over the border of this island is suggested because it has well-repaired paths around. The Island of Bastimentos located inside the Marine park is popularly known for having versatile qualities of the plant, giving the tourist an opportunity to observe the beauty.
The beautiful landscapes of Bocas del Toro, along with their numerous natural beauties, are quite perfect for cycling. Here, travelers are sure to find suitable locations. Bicycle rentals run approximately US$1 or US$5/ per day. The roads are very flat and repaired, making getting around on a bike very easy.
There is no electronic transportation in Bocas del Toro.
The shuttle vans established by the transportation department of Bocas del Drago extends throughout Isla Colon, between Bocas del Drago and Bocas del Toro. The every hour bus leaves from Parque Simon Bolivar helps pick up the daily passengers for work purpose and tourist for the purpose to explore the city. The cost for one trip is nearly five dollars. Half an hour bus also runs over the route from Almirante to water taxi offices with a trip charge of seven dollars. The important thing to notice is that buses only take a halt at crossroads over the main road.
Tram, Train and Subway
There are neither train nor tram services in Bocas del Toro.
Bocas del Toro is filled up with various stalls selling different t-shirts and souvenirs. As compared to other destinations, there is no aggressiveness of vendors so you can easily enjoy your shopping experience. The main street is filled with the super market for important necessities.
A food market is a pedestrianized area that has been designated for restaurants and cafes. Browsing through markets is always a great way to spend free time. Whether buying food, art or rummaging through antiques, Bocas del Toro needs to suit. Lose yourself among the inviting market stands that offer local food or unique art and accessories. Some of the best food markets in Bocas del Toro are:
- Supermarket Isla Colon
- Super Gourmet Deli
Bocas del Toro markets show the travelers stunning scenery, and the flea markets mostly make up most of the splendid landscape. If you spend a day at Bocas del Toro, it will leave you both inspired and relaxed, and with a taste for more of this beautiful and wonderful country! Some of the famous flea markets in Bocas del Toro are:
- Tony's Market
- Supermarket Isla Colon
Second Hand Stores
Thrifty lovers would spend hours just to scour for the right piece of clothing that resonates with them. In a way, shopping at a second-hand shop is no longer about finding the right design for yourself, but it's about finding the right history that you would happily boast. Some of the famous second-hand stores in Bocas del Toro are :
- Filthy Friday Bocas
- Bocas Dive Center
Sustainable Eco-fashion is a process of creating a useful change in developing fashion products. It also includes the fashion system to achieve greater ecological integrity and social justice. The most famous brands which make eco-fashion clothes and accessories in Bocas del Toro are :
- Lido Boutique
- Bocas Dive Center
Plastic waste is a growing problem worldwide - especially for the planet's oceans. The dilemma has inspired a Canadian entrepreneur to start using old plastic bottles to build homes on Panama's island. The Plastic Bottle Village is an eco-residential community nestled in the jungle's heart in the Panamanian province of Bocas del Toro. The brainchild of activist Robert Bezeau, the village aims to show how plastic waste can be transformed into low-cost sustainable housing. Bezeau hopes to build a small settlement of around 120 homes, all made from recycled plastic bottles.
The waste management issue in Bocas del Toro is more complicated than most things here are. Either way, tourism is here, and so are the empty beer cans and plastic water bottles that the tourists kindly bring back from their tour of Zapatilla. Señor Robert claims to spend over $30,000 a month dealing with the waste management situation since he undertook the project four months ago after it was no longer possible to dispose of the garbage under the former treatment plan in Boca del Drago.
- Panama Recycling Group
Work and Study Abroad
The Bocas del Toro is an index for international education with a top listing of study level universities, volunteering, learning of intensive language in school programs, and internships in various field. Both postgraduate and pre-graduate options for students are also available. 9,000 years before isolation took place due to the rising seas which gave birth to this rich archipelago of Panama’s Caribbean coast. The terrestrial habitat of marine animals was studied and researched by a scientist who presided in the province of Bocas Del Porto. The beautiful and splendid coral reef and habitat of sea animal was observed by the help of scientist hosted by the institute
A Province in Panama known as Bocas del Toro covers an area of 4643.9 sq kilometers and is subdivided into 9 different islands and one big mainland. This province consists of the Bahia Almirante, Adjacent mainland, Laguna de Chiriqui, and Toro Archipelago. The international index of education is located over this place. The Bocas del Toro provides a study of university-level abroad, volunteering, learning-intensive language, and many local internships. Student exchange programs takes place frequently at Bocas Del Toro.
An au pair is a helper or supporter from a foreign country working for, and living as part of, a host family in another city or country. Typically, au pairs help the family by taking responsibility for childcare and some housework and receive a monetary allowance for personal use. A large number of opportunities are available for Au pair in Bocas del Toro.
Volunteering means a person who voluntarily undertakes or expresses a willingness to launch a service. Opportunities are now available for professionals, volunteers, nurses, doctors, and healthcare professionals in Bocas del Toro.