North Africa

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Eco-friendly travel guide to North Africa advises how to be a responsible tourist. Learn how to travel in a sustainable way and how to respect the local people and culture. Make your trip green by supporting locally owned hotels, organic restaurants and other businesses. Read more on how to protect the environment by making conscientious choices and how to travel green in North Africa, Africa.


  • Air quality: 3.1 - 3.7 / 5
  • Bus connections: 3.5 - 4.4 / 5
  • Train connections: 2.7 - 3.5 / 5
  • Hitchhiking: 3.1 - 4.3 / 5
  • National parks: 3.7 - 4.6 / 5
  • Outdoor activities: 3.3 - 4.1 / 5
  • Locals' English level: 3.9 - 4.7 / 5
  • Safety: 2.3 - 3.8 / 5
  • Accommodation: US$23 - $287
  • Budget per day: US$45 - $393

Responsible Travel

We need to adhere to environmentally friendly travel aspects when we visit the countries found here in the north region. We are advised to use water responsibly so as to avoid wastage of thus precious resource. We can even use public transport more so as to reduce the amount of toxic emissions being released into the air. We are also advised to reside in environmentally friendly accommodations and also to contribute more to the local evonomy.


Air Quality and Pollution

The air quality in the North Africa region has continued to improve over time. Governments have been raking in efforts to eradicate waste which releases foul smell into the air. You are however advised to shut your windows when dust storms affects your area of stay. Solid waste has been the most culprit in causing pollution in the North Africa region but liquid waste has also caused some bit of problem of the same. Several industries and also over flowing sewage treatment plants dump water into nearby lands and water bodies thus polluting these resources.


Respect the Culture

The communities found in North Africa usually speak the Berber and several Arab languages. These two languages belong to the Afro-asiatic language family. Other factors have come in and heavily influenced the Berber languages. Cultures of the Romans, the Greek, the Arabs, the Egyptians, the Vandals, the Phoenicians, and other African countries contribute the most in these influences. The communities here are usually grouped according to ethno-linguistic lines. The Berber and the Arab languages are usually affiliated with the Maghreb. Most of the Northwest Africans who are Arabic speakers, usually have an Arabic history and do often share several visions with other Arabs. In time, Egyptians moved from their traditional language and embraced the modern Egyptian Arabic. They did however, retain their sense of national identity. The Maghreb, who were initially referred to as the Jewish people, moved to France or Israel upon the North African countries gaining independence. Tunisia and Morocco have mostly embraced the French language.


Top 10 Places to Visit

The Giza Pyramid Complex. It is also referred to as the Giza Necropolis. It is located on the Giza Plateau in the city of Giza, Egypt. Here, you will find the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Great Sphinx of Giza. This entire complex was constructed during the era of the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. This site also has several graves. It is located towards the end of the Western Desert, about 13 kilometers from the capital, Cairo.

The Bahia Palace. It is located in Marrakesh, Morocco. It was constructed during the 19th century, started by Si Musa, who was the grand vizier of Alaouite sultan Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman and was finished by his son, Si Ba Ahmed ibn Musa, who was the grand vizier of Sultan Moulay Abdelaziz. Its decor has captured the eyes of many tourists. The walls have stucco which has Arabic writings in scripted on it. It also has arabesques, muqarnas, and geometric patterns inscribed on it. The palace floors are fitted with marble and zellij tiles. The ceiling is made up of cedar colored with floral patterns. The building materials for this palace were all sourced locally where the cedar wood was sourced from Middle Atlas, the marble from Meknes, and the tiles were sourced from Tetouan. Local artisans are the ones who decorated this palace.

The Abu Simbel temples. They are located in Aswan, Egypt. They are found in a village known as Abu Simbel village. The lake Nasser banks are just a few meters from these temples. They have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site under the "Nubian Monuments". These twin temples were carved out of a mountainside in the 13th century BC, during the reign of the Pharaoh Ramesses II. They were built as a remembrance of the Pharaoh's victory in the Kadesh battle.

The Kutubiyya Mosque. It is also known as Koutoubia Mosque. It is located in Marrakesh, Morocco and is the largest mosque in the country. Locals usually refer to this mosque as the Mosque of the Booksellers. It is surrounded by beautiful gardens on its sides. It is believed to have been constructed in 1147 by the Almohad caliph Abd al-Mu'min. It was then reconstructed by Abd al-Mu'min in 1158. The final renovation was done in 1195 by Ya'qub al-Mansur. The minaret is 77 meters high and is furnished with geometric arch motifs and metal orbs. Its construction is believed to have been inspired by the Hassan Tower in the capital, Rabat and the Giralda in Seville, Spain.

The Karnak Temple Complex. It is located in Luxor, Egypt. Here, you will find ancient temples, pylons, and chapels among other buildings. It is believed to have been constructed between 2000 to 1700 BC when Senusret I was in power. The surrounding area was considered to be the Egyptian Ipet-isut, the main place of worship place of the god Amun. This complex inspired the name of a nearby village, El-Karnak village which is approximately 2.5 kilometers from Luxor.

The Hassan II Mosque. It is located in Casablanca, Morocco. It is the largest mosque in the continent that is still operational and is 7th in ranking among the largest mosques in the world. Its minaret is 210 meters high and is believed to be the second highest in the world. This mosque was designed by Michel Pinseau, constructed by local artisans, and officially commissioned in 1993. Its minaret has a laser on top which usually shines its light towards Mecca. Its walls are made of marble with the roof of this mosque being retractable. This mosque has the capacity to accommodate up to 105,000 worshippers at any given time.

Philae. This island is located in Aswan, Egypt. The surrounding rapids are usually flooded at times after the Aswan Low Dam was built in 1902. A temple that initially stood here was demolished and moved to Agilkia Island during the UNESCO Nubia Campaign project aimed at protecting temple complexes until the completion of the Aswan High Dam project in 1970.

Ouzoud Falls. These falls are located in Middle Atlas village in the Azilal province, Morocco. These waterfalls drain in the gorge of El-Abid River. The name 'Ouzoud translates to "the act of grinding grain" in Berber language. You can access the bottom of these falls using a small path dotted with olive trees. They are located approximately 150 kilometers from the city of Marrakech.

Khan el-Khalii. This bazaar and souq is located in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. It was constructed as a trade center during the Mamluk era. Several Egyptian artisans have set up their businesses here where they make and sell artifacts and other souvenirs. It is one of the most famous souqs in the region.

The Todgha Gorges. These limestone river canyons are located in Atlas Mountains in Morocco. These canyons are believed to have been formed by the Todgha River. The final 600 meters of these canyons are the most amazing as they narrow down to flat stony tracks with rock walls on each side rising up to a height of 160 meters. You can walk on the canyon floor during the dry season but not during the rainy season.


Explore

The North Africa region is comprised of seven countries which are Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Sudan. You can visit many attraction sites here such as the Abu Simbel temples located in Aswan city in Egypt, Ouzoud Falls located in the Azilal province in Morocco, and the Hassan II Mosque located in Casablanca, Morocco where you can make memories. You can also visit the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities located in Cairo in Egypt and the Saraya Museum located in Tripoli, Libya where you can learn about the respective cultures of these countries and its people. You can also visit the various restaurants here in the region where you can enjoy local and international cuisines.


City Parks

Safari Sharm El-Sheikh. This park is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. Here, you get a chance to have an enjoyable experience riding on a camel. You also get a chance to enjoy speeding down the Sinai desert on a motorbike. Various statues located inside the park together with the breathtaking view of the sunrise complete this safari park.

Bab al-Azizia. Also known as "The Splendid Gate", this park was initially a military barracks. It is located towards the south of the capital, Tripoli, Libya. It was the principal military base for the Muammar Gaddafi until anti-Gaddafi forces finally captured it on 23rd of August, 2011 during the civil war in the capital. This park covers a total area of 6 kilometers squared. It is strategically located to facilitate access to government establishments in the city and also facilitate direct high-speed road access to Tripoli International Airport. A section of this base was destroyed during the war. The government plans to completely demolish it and turn it into an official city park.

Cleo Park. This park is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. Multiple games are available at this park and can be enjoyed by everyone. There are a restaurant and café in the park selling pizza and coffee starting from $3 (45 Egp) and $2 (30 Egp) respectively. The entry fees are reasonable as locals pay 200 Egp while visitors pay $30.


National Parks

Algharabolli National Park. It is also known as the Karabolli National Park. It is situated adjacent to the Al-Garabulli in Tripoli, Libya. It was commissioned in 1992 and occupies a total of 8,000 hectares of land here in the capital. Several freshwater rivers are found here including coastal areas on the Mediterranean Sea. It has amazing beaches cliffs, and sand dunes. It also has a bird sanctuary which has more than 1,000 bird species. Hyenas and seals can also be found at this national park.

Ras Mohamed Nature Reserve. It is located at the furthest south of the Sinai Peninsula in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. It is bordered by the Gulf of Suez to the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east. Here, you will get a chance to be wowed by the colorful corals and rare fish species.


Beaches

Ra's Nasrani. This beach is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. Here, you get to enjoy professional snorkeling experiences right from shore. The surface current will gently carry you along the reef in the early afternoons. You also get to enjoy the amazing view of the coral reef. At this beach, you can snorkel either from a boat or nearby hotels.


Landmarks

The Arch of Marcus Aurelius. This is a Roman arch located in Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It is located towards the north of the city close to the Medina. It is a popular tourist attraction here in Tripoli.

SOHO Square. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. This is a haven for those tourists who love shopping. You will get various commodities here and at reasonable prices. The nice beaches surrounding this area bring in a relaxing sensation.


Museums

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities. It is also called the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo. It is located in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. It was constructed in 1901 and it is where Egyptian ancient artifacts are located. It was designed by Marcel Dourgnon, an architect from France and was built by Garozzo-Zaffarani, a construction company based in Italy. It was officially commissioned in 2019.

King Tut Museum. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. This museum was named after Tutankhamu. The museum is found in the sharm inside the shopping center known as Genena mall. One can view the images of the replica of the Cairo Museum. There is also a Russian audio escort.

Saraya Museum. It is located in Tripoli, the capital city of Libya. It is the national museum in the country. It is situated in the Red Castle building which is one of the ancient buildings in the country. It was commissioned in 1919 during the colonial period. The museum preserves and displays various archeological artifacts that were collected by the Italians during the colonial period. This museum is surrounded with a big square which is believed to have been designed by Florestano Di Fausto, an Italian architect. It was commissioned to the public in 1988 and was renamed the Assaraya Alhamra MuseumRed Castle Museum. It is fitted with up-to-date facilities including a wheelchair ramp at the entrance. It is usually open for 24 hours.

The Majorelle Garden. It is located in Marrakech, Morocco. Its inception was inspired by Jacques Majorelle, an orientalist artist from France. The Cubist villa found here was designed by Paul Sinoir, an architect from France. Its ownership changed in the 1980s when it was bought by two fashion designers, Pierre Bergé and Yves Saint-Laurent. Here, you will be able to see the Berber Museum, the Yves Saint Laurent Museum, and the Islamic Art Museum of Marrakech.

Sharm Museum. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. Some Beautiful scrolls can be bought at a cheaper price when you have good negotiation skills. Also, you get a chance to differentiate authentic papyrus from the banana skill.

The Karamanly House Museum. It is also referred to as the Qaramanli House Museum, the House of Karamanly and the Tripoli Historical Exhibition. This ancient house and museum is located in Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It is greatly linked with the Karamanli dynasty. It was constructed during the latter half of the 18th century. It was later renovated during the 1990s.


Eat

Fares Traditional Restaurant. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. This restaurant mainly sells fresh fish and other seafood prepared by the local chefs when compared to others in the Old Market. Also, you get a chance to enjoy grilled shrimps, boiled oysters, grilled perch, and fresh fruits. Alcohol is not allowed on the premises.

Mat'am al-Saraya. This restaurant is located in the CBD of Tripoli, Libya. You will be able to eat local cuisines here. The most interesting thing about this restaurant is that you will get a chance to smoke shisha here. Seating arrangement here is both suited for those who prefer to eat as individuals and those who enjoy eating in groups. It is usually open all through the week from 10 am to 11 pm.

The Queen Vic. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. This is a traditional local bar for Britons where English speakers feel comfortable due to the design and environment created here. Also, soccer matches are shown on television during the English football period. The bar sells different kinds of beers, wines, and non-alcoholic beverages. Prices usually start from $2.

Boharat restaurant. Iv is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. It usually offers Egyptian cuisines usually prepared by qualified Chefs. The price usually ranges between $2 and $4. The restaurant provides a variety of cuisines from different parts of the world including the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It is also suitable for people who prefer vegetables over meat as vegan options are also available. The restaurant has a free internet connection, a pub that sells alcohol, wine, and beer. Customers tend to enjoy digital payment and table service.

Havanna Juice. This restaurant is located along Ghagharesh and Alstgalal streets in Tripoli, the capital of Libya. Amazing blended juices are prepared here according to your desire. You will get the chance to enjoy blended juice of pineapples, watermelon, bananas, mangoes, and avocadoes. The juice will be prepared in front of you. You will also be able to enjoy chocolates and nuts offered here.

Casa Mia. This restaurant is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. It also serves Italian cuisines. The kinds of pasta and pizza sold here are locally made. Other cuisines on offer include the Mediterranean and Europe. It has both vegan and gluten-free options and suitable for consumers who prefer vegetables over meat. It has a complete pub that sells alcohol.


Drink

Pier 88. This bar is located in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. It is a very interesting venue as it is situated on the top deck of a boat. You will be able to enjoy majestic views of river Nile from here. You will get to choose from a wide selection of wines and beers. The atmosphere is usually electric during the weekends as the bar is usually packed.

Diamond Lounge. This bar is located in Algiers, the capital city of Algeria. It is a rooftop lounge where you are guaranteed of enjoying breathtaking views of the city and sunset from here. You have a wide variety of drinks and even snacks to choose from. You can get in touch with the management using this number, +213 561 68 66


Tap-water

The CDC of USA advises that we use bottled water when we visit this region. You can only drink faucet water when you have water purification tablets or after you have boiled it.


Activities

The North Africa region is comprised of seven countries which are Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Sudan. You can visit many attraction sites here such as the Abu Simbel temples located in Aswan city in Egypt, Ouzoud Falls located in the Azilal province in Morocco, and the Hassan II Mosque located in Casablanca, Morocco where you can make memories. You can also visit the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities located in Cairo in Egypt and the Saraya Museum located in Tripoli, Libya where you can learn about the respective cultures of these countries and its people. You can also visit the various restaurants here in the region where you can enjoy local and international cuisines.


Accommodation

El Khan. This property is located along Arbaa Arsat Street in Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It comprises a total of fifteen rooms which are furnished in Arabic style. The staff here is very welcoming and very helpful to clients. Amenities that you will get to enjoy here include an outdoor pool, laundry services, ironing services, and free Wi-Fi throughout the complex. Guests will also get to enjoy a complimentary breakfast every morning. There are a bar and a restaurant on-site with 24-hour reception services being a plus.

Bustan Urban Retreat. It is located in Tripoli, Libya. This property constitutes 17 VIP rooms and 28 standard deluxe rooms. The rooms are fitted with plasma television. This property has a game room, a spa, a gym, and an outdoor pool. Free Wi-Fi is available throughout the entire complex. There are a bar and restaurant on-site. Ample parking is also available here.


Green Hotels

Hotel Argana. It is situated in Agadir, Morocco. It is located a few meters from both the beach and the city center. Amenities that guests will get to enjoy here include a spa, a private beach, 2 restaurants, free Wi-Fi, a garden, and an outdoor swimming pool. The rooms here are fitted with a satellite TV, a balcony, and a fully equipped personal bathroom. Guests here will get to enjoy a buffet breakfast every morning. The management here has installed adequate waste disposal bins that can handle all the waste that is produced here. They are regularly emptied and the waste is disposed of appropriately. The management here has also installed several solar panels to tap renewable energy from the sun. You can enjoy both local and international cuisines at the restaurants here. The most popular point of interest located close to this hotel is the Agadir Airport.

Kiriza. This hotel is located in Hammamet, Tunisia. It is located close to the beach. This hotel has both indoor and outdoor swimming pools. This hotel has enough waste disposal bins. They also use electricity to cook thus omitting the release of carbon monoxide into the air. The management has also installed rain water collection tanks thus conserving water.

Sofitel Marrakech Lounge and Spa. Is located in Jamaâ El Fna Square in Morocco. Guests here will get to enjoy free Wi-Fi, a spa, a bar, 3 restaurants, a garden, 3 swimming pools, a gym, and ample parking. The rooms here have a private balcony and are furnished in luxury style. Services that you will get to enjoy here include valet services, 24-hour front desk services, and currency exchange services. Popular points of interest located close to this hotel include the Marrakech Menara Airport and the Bahia Palace which is located 1 kilometer from this property.

The Park Inn Ulysse Resort and Thalasso. It is located in Djerba Island in Tunisia. Amenities that guests will get to enjoy here include an outdoor swimming pool, a private beach, a spa, and two indoor swimming pools. Rain water collection tanks have been installed throughout the entire complex. Adequate waste disposal bins have also been installed to handle waste produced from this hotel. Water recycling has also been embraced here.


Hostels and Guest Houses

Hotel plage d'or. It is located in Jijel. Amenities that guests will get to enjoy here include free Wi-Fi, a garden, a sin terrace, and ample parking. The rooms here are fitted with a wardrobe and air conditioning. Services that you will get to enjoy here include 24-hour reception services, room services, and bicycle hire services. The Jijel Ferhat Abbas Airport is located15 kilometers from this property.

Xperience Kiroseiz Parkland. It is located in Naama Bay, Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. To avoid inconvenience, you are advised to book in advance. One room per night goes for $36 coupled with free breakfast.

Seed Guest House. It is located in Tripoli, the capital city of Libya. Amenities that guests will get too enjoy here include free Wi-Fi throughout the complex and ample parking on-site. This guest house is located several minutes from the ancient Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles and the 14th-century Mansouri Great Mosque. The management here offers airport shuttle services. The check-in time at this guest house is usually 3 pm while the check-out time is usually 9 am. The most popular point of interest from this guest house is the Beirut-Rafic Hariri International Airport, which is located 87 kilometers from this property.


Apartments

Tripoli Apartments. They are located in Tripoli, the capital city of Libya. These apartments are usually furnished and are available for rent for either short-term or long-term stay. They are conveniently located and cleanliness here is usually given a priority. The staff here is amazing and security at these apartments is usually at top notch.

Porto Sharm El Sheikh Rentals. They are located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. You get to enjoy reasonable prices here with the apartment also fitted to suit children. It is a 17-minute drive from the Sharm El Sheikh International Airport (SSH). You are advised to get in touch with the property management on their website to accurately get the exact rates and availability of the property. Amenities that you will get to enjoy here include:

o Strong internet connection

o Ample parking

o Outdoor pool

o Kitchens in some rooms

o Fitness center


Couchsurfing

All these countries have embraced couch surfing. You can be sure that you will be welcomed by a potential host when you visit any of the seven countries found here in the region.


Camping

SinaCamp Ras Mo. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. This campsite is one of a kind as you get a chance to enjoy snorkeling in the clear waters. Privacy is guaranteed here thus; you get the chance to peacefully enjoy the nightlife by the campfire. amenities that you get to enjoy at this campsite include a kitchen in specific rooms and ample parking.

Camp Area in Ras Mohamed. It is located in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt. This campsite is just adjacent to the beach making it ideal for enjoying swimming. The tasty delicacies here are a plus. For anyone planning to spend the night here, you are advised to seek permission from the military.


Regions

There are 4 regions in Egypt which are: Sharm el-Sheikh

Luxor

Cairo

Hurghada

There are 31 regions in Algeria which are:

Algérois

Aurès Mountains

Constantinois

Gourara

Hautes Plaines

Hodna

Hoggar Mountains

Grande Kabylie

Petite Kabylie

Basse Kabylie

Eastern Kabylie

The M'zab

Mitidja

Annaba region

The Saoura

Titteri

The Tell

Tidikelt

Trara Mountains

Touat

Oranie

South Oranie

Chelif River valley

The Dahra Range

The Ouarsenis

The Zibans

The Algerian Sahara

Grand Erg Oriental and Grand Erg Occidental

Souf

Tassill n'Ajjer

Tanezrouft

There are 22 regions in Libya which are:

Al Butnan

Darnah

Al Jabal al Akhdar

Al Marj

Banghazi

Al Wahat

Al Kufrah

Surt

Misratah

Marqab

Tarabulus

Al Jafarah

Az Zawiyah

An Nuqat al Khams

Al Jabal al Gharbi

Nalut

Al Jufrah

Wadi ash Shati'

Sabha

Wadi al Hayat

Ghat

Murzuq

There are 12 regions in Morocco which are:

Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceïma

L'Oriental

Fès-Meknès

Rabat-Salé-Kénitra

Béni Mellal-Khénifra

Casablanca-Settat

Marrakech-Safi

Drâa-Tafilalet

Souss-Massa

Guelmim-Oued Noun

Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab

There are 7 regions in Tunisia which are:

Grand Tunis

Centre Est

Sud Est

Sud Ouest

Nord Est

Nord Ouest

Centre Ouest

There are 18 regions in Sudan which are:

Khartoum

North Kordofan

Northern

Kassala

Blue Nile

North Darfur

South Darfur

South Kordofan

Gezira

White Nile

River Nile

Red Sea

Al Qadarif

Sennar

West Darfur

Central Darfur

East Darfur

West Kordofan

There are 4 regions in Western Sahara which are:

Laayoune

Smara

Auserd

Dakhla


Cities

Cairo. It is the capital city of Egypt. It is located on the Nile River. Here, you will get to see the amazing Tahrir Square and also get to learn about the culture of Egypt at the Egyptian Museum located here in the capital. You will also be able to see the Cairo Tower which is 187 meters high from where you will be wowed with scenic views of the city. It is located near Giza where you will be able to see the famous pyramids and the Great Sphinx.

Algiers. It is the capital city of Algeria. It is located on the Mediterranean coast. Here, you will be able to see the Kasbah buildings, famous for their white walls. You will also be able to see a medina characterized with winding streets that are usually steep. You will also be able to see the famous Ottoman palace here in the capital. You will also be able to see the Ketchaoua Mosque which was constructed in the 17th-century. This mosque has marble columns and arches. You will also be able to see the Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a catholic parish which has a silver dome and mosaics.

Rabat. It is the capital of Morocco. It is situated along the shores of the Bouregreg River and the Atlantic Ocean. Here, you will be able to see the Kasbah of the Udayas, which is surrounded by gardens that were created by the French. You will also be able to see the famous Hassan Tower here in the capital.

Tripoli. It is the capital city of Libya. It is the largest city in the country that has a population of over one million people. It is located on a desert's edge, towards the northwest of the country.

Tunis. It is the capital city of Tunisia. It is the largest city in the country with a population of over 1.5 million inhabitants. It is believed to be the sixteenth-largest city among the Arab countries.

Khartoum. It is the capital city of Sudan and us the largest city in the country. It is believed to have a population of more than 4 million inhabitants. It is located where the White Nile and the Blue Nile meet in a place referred to as al-Mogran or al-Muqran. This city is uniquely divided by these two rivers, the city center is divided into three parts, i.e., Khartoum proper, Khartoum North, and Omdurman.

Marrakesh. This city is located in Morocco. It is a major economic hub in the country. Here, you will also find some of the most iconic mosques and palaces of Morocco. You will be able to see markets selling various products such as pottery, textiles, and jewelry.

Other cities found in Egypt are:

Alexandria

Gizeh

Shubra El-Kheima

Port Said

Suez

Luxor

al-Mansura

El-Mahalla El-Kubra

Tanta

Asyut

Ismailia

Fayyum

Zagazig

Aswan

Damietta

Damanhur

al-Minya

Beni Suef

Qena

Sohag

Hurghada

6th of October City

Shibin El Kom

Banha

Kafr el-Sheikh

Arish

Mallawi

10th of Ramadan City

Bilbais

Marsa Matruh

Idfu

Mit Ghamr

Al-Hamidiyya

Desouk

Qalyub

Abu Kabir

Kafr el-Dawwar

Girga

Akhmim

Matareya

Other cities found in Algeria are:

Oran

Constantine

Batna

Djelfa

Sétif

Annaba

Sidi bel Abbès

Biskra

Tiaret

Tébessa

Chlef

Béjaïa

Bordj Bou Arreridj

Béchar

Skikda

Blida

M'Sila

Souk Ahras

El Eulma

Mostaganem

Laghouat

Tlemcen

Médéa

Tizi Ouzou

Jijel

El Oued

Ouargla

Relizane

Saïda

Bou Saâda

Guelma

Aïn Beïda

Maghnia

Mascara

Khenchela

Barika

Messaad

Aflou

Aïn Oussara


Getting There and Moving Around

You can easily access all the countries in this region by air. They have established efficient international airports that meet international standards thus it is very easy to access these countries by air. The road network in this region has also been drastically improved. Majority of the major cities in this region are connected with improved road networks thus you can easily access them by road. Six out of the seven north African countries have coastlines thus, you can also access these countries by sea.

Buses are the best way to move around the countries in this region. The respective national governments have improved various road networks linking majority of important cities and regions in their countries thus buses are the best option when moving around in this region.


Air

Cairo International Airport. It is located in Cairo, Egypt and is the main international airport in the country. It is situated in Heliopolis, some few kilometers from the CBD. It covers a total area of 37 square kilometers. It is the principal hub for Egypt Air and Nile Air among other airlines. It is believed to be the second busiest airport in the continent.

Houari Boumediene Airport. It is also known as the Algiers International Airport. It is the main international Airport in Algeria and it is located in the capital, Algiers. It is named after a former president of the country, Houari Boumediene.

RabatSalé Airport. It is located in Sale, Morocco. It is the main international airport in the country mostly serving Rabat and Sale cities. It is both a civilian airport and a military airport. It is the primary base for the Royal Moroccan Air Force. It is situated about 8 kilometers from the capital, Rabat.

Tripoli International Airport. It is an international airport serving the capital city, Tripoli, and the rest of Libya. It is the largest airport in the country. It is located in Qasr bin Ghashir, approximately 24 kilometers from Tripoli's business center.it was the hub for Afriqiyah Airways, Buraq Air, and Libyan Airlines.

Khartoum International Airport. It is located in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. It is the main international airport in the country. It is located within the capital's CBD.


Bus

It is the most common mode of transport in all the countries in this block. The national governments of these nations has partnered with international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank in acquiring the necessary resources that they need to improve the road networks in their countries. There are some disparities in the economic status of these countries where Egypt and Libya surpass their counterparts in terms 9f infrastructure development. Egypt is the most developed country in this block thus the roads in Egypt are the most developed. Other countries are quickly catching up. Many of the infrastructure of these countries were destroyed during the Civil wars that were experienced in these countries but many have bounced back and are quickly renovating what was destroyed during these dark times.


Train

Egyptian National Railways (ENR). It is the national railway of Egypt. It is run by Egyptian Railway Authority (ERA) which is a parastatal. The total length of the entire railway line in the country is 5,625 kilometers with the track gauge measuring 1,435 millimeters.

In Algeria, railway transport is fully functional with the longest railway lines in the country connecting:

Algiers to Oran. It was constructed in1871.

Algiers to Skikda. It was constructed in1886.

Ramdane Djamel to Annaba. It was constructed in1904.

In Libya, there is no functional railway line since 1965 to date.

In Morocco, the railway industry is run by the Office National des Chemins de Fer (ONCF), which is the national railway operator. The total length of the railway line in the, country covers 4,225 kilometers with the track gauges being 1,435 millimeters.

In Sudan, the railway tracks here in the country are usually single tracks with the tracks being narrow. It mostly connects the central and northern regions in the country. The total length of all the railway lines in the country covers a distance of 4,725 kilometers with the main line connecting Wadi Halfa to Khartoum.

In Tunisia, the railway transport is run by Tunisian Railways (SNCFT). Other companies also offering railway services in the country are Société des transports de Tunis, which runs commuter trains in the capital, and Sahel Metro, which operates the electric train that runs from Sousse to Mahdia.


In Western Sahara, it is the world's longest cargo train, the Mauritania Railway cargo train, that cuts across the north eastern part of this country. It ends at Nouadhibou.


Hitchhiking

You can hitch a ride on a majority of these countries easily. Many people who live in these countries have experienced dark times during wars and would not want to go back to such times. Thus, they are doing all they can to embrace hospitality in their cultures. Many motorists are willing to offer you a ride at least close to your destination if not directly to your destination.


Others

Majority of these countries have coastlines thus can be easily accessed by sea. They have port towns where a ship can easily dock. Various small boats also operate in these countries especially in the Mediterranean Sea.


Sustainable Shopping

The fashion industry has taken this region by storm. Many experienced and promising designers are showcasing their talents in this field. The target of many local and international designing companies is to introduce zero waste designing materials in this industry. Several fashion galas are being held in this region every year to showcase the quality and importance of zero waste designing materials.


Recycling

Most of the waste that is being recycled is metal. Many people have flocked various dumpsites in these countries where they look for metal pieces so that they can sell them to recycling companies or even sell them as scrape metal. Several recycling companies have ventured into the glass recycling business where they have installed appropriate waste disposal bins for glass in several cities across the region. They also buy glass pieces from dumpsite collectors.


Waste

Solid waste comprises majority of the waste here in this region. From plastics to glass to metals, these solid waste have been a menace ever since on these countries. Some have decided to ban plastics into their countries to try and reduce the illegal accumulation of non-biodegradable wastes. The international organizations such as the World Bank is channeling resources to these countries to help in establishing efficient and effective waste management systems to minimize this scourge.


Work and Study Abroad

Trade in this block has picked up the pace and is continuing to grow with time. The national governments here are creating harmonic relationships with each other to try to ease the trade restrictions between them so as to make import and export businesses between them to be much easier. Expatriates are swarming in these block to try and establish business centers mostly in countries such as Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. These countries are usually in the forefront when it comes to the tourism industry thus many investors have channeled their resources into this industry, mostly in the building of five star hotels. Other businesses are also being invested into such as the gold mining business, the oil industry, the health industry, and also the transportation sector. The United Nations has also set up several offices in this block to coordinate its operations in this region. Some of these offices are:

(FAO) located in Giza, Egypt

(ICAO) located in Cairo, Egypt

(UNESCO) located in Giza, Egypt

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) located in Algiers, Algeria

(UNHCR) located in Algiers, Algeria

(IAEA) located in Khartoum, Sudan

(IFAD) located in Khartoum, Sudan

(UNEP) located in Khartoum, Sudan

(UNOPS) located in Tunis, Tunisia

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) located in Rabat, Morocco.

United Nations Mission for the Referendum (MINURSO) located in Laayoune, Western Sahara.


Exchange Student

Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST). It is located in Mugran, Sudan. This public university is the largest in the country. It has more than 10 campuses in the country. It was established in 1902 initially as the Khartoum Technical School and School of Commerce.

Cairo University. It was initially called the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, then its name changed to King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952. It is a public university with its main campus being located in Giza, Egypt. It was established in December, 1908. It is the second oldest university in the country after Al Azhar University. It boasts of producing three Nobel prize winners.

The University of Tripoli (UOT). It is located in Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It is the largest university in the country. It was established in 1957 as an affiliate of the University of Libya but later pulled out and became a university of itself in 1973.

Al-Azhar University. It is located in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. Its inception is believed to have been inspired by the Al-Azhar Mosque in the capital. It is the pioneer university in the country that has been offering courses that warrant a degree. It is the most re-known university for Sunni Islamic learning.


Au Pair

Majority of the population of the countries in this region belong in the middle or low social classes. This is attributed to many factors with the most predominant one being civil wars and corruption. These factors dragged the economies of these countries where the majority who were not well off felt the pinch rendering many jobless and even some losing their lands. Although the national governments are trying their best to resuscitate their economies, still many of the affected people have not yet fully picked up. Many have turned to seek domestic jobs to be able to earn a living. Those in the higher social class are the ones who mostly seek nannies and they mostly turn to their relatives living in rural areas or even locals from their own country. Several foreigners have also been absorbed in this job industry. Some have even gone ahead to seek nanny jobs in European and Middle Eastern countries such as Spain, Italy, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. You are advised to conduct extensive research on which country you would like to work in this region first. You can then proceed to enroll in authentic websites offering AU services in your preferred country where you can link with potential employers. You can even enroll in some of the AU training centers in these countries where you will learn basic skills and learn about the cultures of specific countries so that you can be one step ahead in this job market.


Volunteering

Many of these countries are in need of volunteering services especially in countries such as Libya, Sudan, and Western Sahara. Civil wars wrecked these countries and the national governments have been working together with international organizations to restore these countries. In the case of Libya, it was worst hit by civil wars leading to the collapse of many sectors in the country such as the health, education, and food sectors. The United Nations has been the most dominant force in sending its volunteers to these countries and you can enroll with them to find volunteering opportunities in this region. Many health workers are usually sent to Libya and Western Sahara thus, when you have the passion to volunteer in these fields and more, please do get in touch with the various UN offices in these countries.


See Also