Eco-friendly travel guide to Russia advises how to be a responsible tourist. Learn how to travel in a sustainable way and how to respect the local people and culture. Make your trip green by supporting locally owned hotels, organic restaurants and other businesses. Read more on how to protect the environment by making conscientious choices and how to travel green in Russia, Europe / Asia.
- Air quality: 3.5 / 5
- Bus connections: 4 / 5
- Train connections: 4 / 5
- Hitchhiking: 5 / 5
- National parks: 5 / 5
- Outdoor activities: 5 / 5
- Locals' English level: 2 / 5
- Safety: 4 / 5
- Accommodation: US$10 - $300
- Budget per day: US$30 - $350
- 1 Responsible Travel
- 2 Air Quality and Pollution
- 3 Respect the Culture
- 4 Top 10 Places to Visit
- 5 Explore
- 6 Eat
- 7 Drink
- 8 Activities
- 9 Accommodation
- 10 Regions
- 11 Cities
- 12 Getting There and Moving Around
- 13 Sustainable Shopping
- 14 Recycling
- 15 Work and Study Abroad
- 16 See Also
Russia is the largest transcontinental country globally. Sitting near the Arctic Circle, the country covers 17,125,200 square kilometers, and statistics also state that Russia owns one-eighth of the world's total inhabited land. The locals speak Russian, and it is the official language of the entire country. Moscow, home to the Kremlin, is the capital city and is the largest European city. The country's total population is over 146 million, and about 90% of the people follow Orthodox Christianity. The currency of the country is the Russian Ruble. Russia has many different areas for exploring and one of the most trendy tourist countries in the world. It also homes many recognized universities and institutes that attract excellent scientists and students from all over the world.
- The pollution in the country is not the best in the world' therefore, as a tourist, it is your responsibility to not indulge in any activity that will contribute to the increasing levels. The best thing to help out the locals make their country a better place to live is by participating in volunteering activities. These activities aim at various societal, economic, developmental, health-care, other issues.
- You will find that the use of plastic items is in control, but there are many manufacturing units, businesses, and some businesspeople that often violate the no-plastic use policy. Therefore, you must avoid using plastic items like mineral water bottles, plastic containers, etc. You must try to use reusable items instead so that you can save costs and also the environment.
- The best way to learn about the local culture, traditions, and history is by interacting with the locals. You will find that many local artisans are selling different hand-made items. You can buy from these people and businesses to support their living and learning about the local culture and craft. These items are also cheap and of better quality. You can use them as souvenirs of your Russian trip.
By following these points, you can lead a responsible life and trip to Russia. There are other eco-friendly ways, such as using public transport and opting for eco-friendly hotels. It will help you in making your Russia trip a memorable and satisfying one. It will also help you respect the land and its people.
Air Quality and Pollution
Most of the air in Russia is polluted. The main reason for polluted air is because of the traffic and the industries. Traffic in this country is a significant problem for the entire nation. Many of the Russian prefer to move around in their vehicles. It creates a lot of pollution in the country along with traffic jams. The cars' engine's smoke contains carbon monoxide, methane, and other pollutants. The government of each state has no regulatory body for tracking industrial pollution. The smoke coming out from the chimneys causes a lot of air pollution. Some of the vents are built next to the residential area in many states. Many open construction sites create a lot of corruption and heavy machinery, like large drills. Air pollution has caused asthma, which is the reason for 1,50,600 asthmatic people in 2005. Noise pollution in this city is at a scale of 49.8 % out of 100%. Traffic remains the main reason why this country is facing so much noise pollution. Some other causes are heavy pieces of machinery used in constructions and airports in each city, which involves taking off and landing aircraft. Due to increased tourism, many Russian businesspeople felt the opportunity to build nightclubs, casinos, and bars, which run during the night, causing light and noise pollution. Noise pollution can cause disturbed routine, stress, headache, migraine, loss of sleep, depression, hearing loss, and other such health issues. Norilsk of Russia is the most polluted city and comes under the world's 100 most polluted cities.
- Polluted Index – 62.40
- Pollution Index Scale – 107.36
- Air Pollution – 59.96
Respect the Culture
We must always respect the country's culture we are visiting as it will help you in many ways. It can help you in learning different cultures and religious practices many people follow. Most of the population in Russia consists of Russian Orthodox; therefore, there are many Christian practices and festivals like Christmas, Easter, and other such celebrations are celebrated all over the country with great enthusiasm. You can connect with the locals very efficiently. Disrespecting any culture will spoil many tourists' image and hurt the Russian people's sentiments and emotions. Russian law states that any person who tends to disrespect any religion and their beliefs is performing a criminal offense, penalized with $4300 and labor or imprisonment of three years. If this crime is committed at any religious place, then the fine will be up to $7,200, and the rest punishment will be the same. This law was made when Russia was declared as a secular country.
Some of the cultural festivals of this country celebrated by different religious groups are:-
- Maslenitsa Festival – This is a sun festival celebrated by Eastern Slavic people in Russia. Other names of these festivals are butter lady or butter week. According to Slavic mythology, this festival is celebrated to worship God Volo, which is the God of the sun.
- St John the Baptist's Day – This is a day celebrated on the birth of John. This day is celebrated by Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Eastern Orthodox. As Christians are spread all over Russia; therefore, this day is marked by the entire country. This day is celebrated as a very charmed and divine festival.
- Russian Winter Festival – This is a festival celebrated in the winter. There are several competitions which happen here. Many people celebrate this with different methods. Some people go skating on the frozen lake, some consume vodka to warm their liver, some go for sleigh rides, and some enjoy folk dance and music.
Top 10 Places to Visit
- Novosibirsk, Siberia: Novosibirsk is popularly called the unofficial capital of Siberia. This place sits on the banks of the River Ob. This place's characteristic feature is that the winters here are as low as -40 degrees Celcius and summers here are warm enough to do sunbathing and swimming. The city offers a lot number of universities, museums, and theatres. The Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theater is also situated here. The most exciting thing here is the Museum of Railway Technology. It shows many locomotives that ran on petrol and diesel, snowplows, electric trains, and many unusual carriages like tank hospitals, tank cars, firefighters, and prison cars. The largest railway station in the whole country is situated here. This station has historical importance, and that is, this place was the epicenter while transporting the prisoners to the soviet union camps. The Novosibirsk Trans Siberian railway is the name of the station.
- Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky, Kamachatka Krai: It is impossible to reach this city by road because volcanoes of all types surround it, whether active or snowcapped. The town, however, is filled with squares, churches, and monuments. There is also Avacha Bay, which is the best place for a whale watching tour or just for simple walking. The two must-visit sites in this place are Krasnaya Sopa Mountain and the Museum of Salmon. Krasnaya Sopa Mountain is one of the best places for skiing and should be on top of tourists' to-do list. The Museum of Salmon is the only one in the world. There is also another museum here known as Vulcanarium Museum, which is small and unique on its own. This museum offers a unique glance into the world filled with volcanoes. One of the most exciting things here is that you can touch the lava. One more thing that tourists should do here is to visit the volcanoes.
- Olkhon Island, Irkutsk Oblast: Olkhon is the largest lake island in the world. This island is full of lush forests, steep mountains, and taiga. This island is situated in Eastern Siberia. The island has a small population which consists of an indigenous group of Mongolic and Buryats. The natives believe that the island has a spiritual place. The tourists often visit places like Peschanaya Village that's abandoned, coastal dunes, Soviet Labour camp, and many other sites. Tourism in this place is evolving at a high cost. Another characteristic feature here is of walking trees. Khazar is the largest semi-urban settlement among many other such accommodations. This place offers a place to stay for tourists. National History of Revyakin is a small museum here. This museum tells us about the history of the island.
- Peterhof, St. Petersburg: Peterhof consists of many universities and is also a significant watch manufacturer in Russia. It is a small city. Mostly, this place is also famous for Peterhof Palace. This Palace was built in 1700 for the great Tsar Peter. It is somewhat similar to the Palace of Versailles. It covers an area of 4000 hectares. One more characteristic feature is that the Palace consists of 173 garden fountains. There is also a feature in the spray that activates the water jet as people get close to it. The garden also touches a formal French style and offers walking paths, an aviary pavilion, and marble statues. This magnificent castle is a masterpiece within itself as architecture, and the various colors indication are said to have been imported from the far east and Asia. The walls in the Palace are covered in Chinese Silk. Ten different museums in the Palace consist of furniture, art pieces, and palace items from as old as the eighteen century.
- The Russian Tundra: When we hear Tundra's word, permafrost's image comes to our mind where the ground is covered in frost with no vegetation. The Tundra is unique in itself because it only exists near the Arctic Circle. The Tundra biome exists in Russia; this itself is an extraordinary thing. The Tundra in Russia consists of seals, polar bears, gray wolves, and various birds and insects. The Green Arctic State Nature Reserve is known for its ecotourism. This reserve is near Krasnoyarsk Karim here; visitors can enjoy bird watching, organize an educational tour, and try various routes to explore this reserve. This place is also a perfect site to experience the Northern Lights.
- Sochi, Krasnodar Krai: It is a beach resort and just next to the black sea. It has long beaches which consist of sand and pebbles. It also organizes a film festival in the summer season, famous worldwide known as Kinotavr. The building here consists of the architecture of Stalinist style. It also has plenty of outdoor markets and various spas so that tourists can relax here. Russia's longest river, known as Mzymta, cuts in Sochi before draining into the Black Sea. Sochi is also very famous for rafting. Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve is declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This reserve is also home to the Persian Leopard, an endangered species; many species of fauna and flora which are unique in themselves are also found here. Rosa Khutor ski resort is also in Sochi, where the 2014 Winter Olympic Games were held here. It is also a favorite tourist destination in winters.
- St. Peterburg: This place is smaller when compared to Moscow. But, the visiting places in St. Peterburg are more when compared to Moscow. If you are planning to see the city's whole in one day, my advice would be to drop the idea because it's impossible! This place has more of European touch to it. Every corner of St. Peterburg is filled with exquisite design and fine art perfectly mixed with history from all around the globe. It's good to wander around these places through a boat or a cruise ship because it has canals 300 kilometers long. There are many more tourist sites for people to visit. Moika Palace is historically significant, St. Isaac's castle - a museum, the hermitage museum. It is the second-largest museum in the world under the category of art and culture.
- Moscow: Since it is the capital of Russia, it has to be a perfect tourist destination. Russia's capital is filled with greenery, ancient architecture, and many more historical buildings to remind us of the past. There are many notable buildings here. The best place to start your tour in this city is the main square called Red square. Along with the court, there are many other buildings here like St. Basil's Cathedral, the Kremlin, and the most famous GUM shopping mall. The fascinating thing about this mall is that its roof is made of glass and steel. Here you get clothes and accessories of almost all brands which are available in Russia. One more important feature of this mall is that here you get the most authentic Russian food. Moscow is also a hub for museums; some are the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Pushkin Museum, the Kremlin artery museum, and many more. There are many more things to explore in Moscow, as its metro stations with unique designs, including river Moskva, stary Arbat, and many more.
- Baikal lake: Baikal lake is one of the record-breaking lakes. It is as old as 25 million years. It is the largest lake in the world; it is the oldest one, also. Moreover, it is also the largest freshwater lake all around the globe. The lake remains frozen for about five months out of 12 months in a year. It is also said to be the clearest lake in the world. Not only this, in winters, one can see for about 40 meters in the water. Around August, the lake reaches its highest temperature, which is 16 degrees celsius. It is the time of the year when you can go swimming or quick dips in this lake. During the rest of the year, the lake's temperature remains as low as 5 degrees Celcius. During this time, the lake looks adorable and becomes a perfect place for site seeing. Many water sports are also done here, depending on the season. In summer, sports like kayaking and island hopping are done here, whereas, in winter, sports like skiing are on a roll.
- Altay, Siberia: They are located in Siberia and are extended to Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China. Altay mountains are declared as a world heritage site by UNESCO. Traditionally, this place was inhabited by ethnic groups of various kinds. It has many lakes and natural reserves. This place becomes a paradise in winters attracting many tourists and visitors. The snowcapped mountains and the frozen rivers add to the natural beauty of this place. It attracts a lot of water sports lovers as well. In the summer, people who love kayaking and hiking come here. In winter, people who love skiing are attracted here. One of the most historical places in Denisova Cave, which is 50,000 years old, has bone fragments and artifacts that belong to the pre-historic era. For staying purpose, the best site is Belokurikha, which is also known as a resort town, which offers comfortable places for tourists to stay and enjoy their holidays.
There are a lot of things in each state of this country to explore around. Exploring will help you remain or get fit as it involves roaming around, including walking or cycling. It also allows you to keep your mind healthy. When you travel, the most important thing is that you must not get bored there, exploring new things will keep you busy. You can explore by walking on the streets and discovering new cafes, restaurants, and street vendors. Being healthy will motivate you to remain healthy. Other than this, you can also explore various statues. Many city parks can be explored even by walking or roaming around the area. There are national parks where you can get knowledge about flora and fauna. There are museums in each state where you can quickly learn about various categories, including history, science, innovation, etc. There are beaches to explore multiple marine creatures and some famous landmarks. As Christianity's main religion, therefore, there are many cathedrals and churches which can also be explored.
There are many city parks which are opened in each city. These parks are free for the public to use. Each park has its unique features, which makes it popular among tourists and locals. These parks can be used for a morning walk as many parks have jogging and walking tracks built. Other than this, there are many features, including you can perform yoga and other exercises like meditation, and these parks will provide you a new environment. You can play outdoor sports like tennis, cricket, and badminton but be sure that you are not troubling the public. City parks can also be used as a place to explore nature. You can come with your friends, family or partner to have a fantastic time here. It is also suitable for a picnic spot. These parks maintain top-level cleanliness; therefore, the cups or plates are organic, so you must not pollute this park by any means. Some vendors sell snacks and beverages outside the park. Inside these parks, there are canteens.
- Readovskiy Parkis, Smolensk: It is a park in Smolensk. This park is best to be visited in winter as it is entirely covered with snow throughout the winter, which gives it an awe-inspiring look. The name of this park was after an ancient Scottish noble family. This noble family lived in Smolensk and has a significant role in history, including the successful war in 1812. There are some ancient statues, and monuments like the statue of a grieving mother made up of granite. Other such monuments reflect some historical incidents, including wars and the tribute to martyred soldiers. It is a nature park.
- Gorky Park of Culture and Leisure, Moscow: It is a central park which is located in Moscow. This park was named after Maxim Gory, a famous writer, and was also nominated five times for the noble prize in literature; he founded the socialist realism literary method. It is a large park spread over 200 hectares and an additional 100 acres covered by the river. Other than sports and walking, many people come here for boating. This park was established for the public in 1928. You can reach here by most of Moscow's metros as it is present in the city center. There was a roller coaster, but in 2011 due to severe accidents, the government demolished it. It was the first cultural park in Moscow because there was once an agricultural and handicraft exhibition.
- Muzeon Park of Arts, Moscow: It is a park located in Moscow. This park has many monuments, including history, art, literature, science, and other such monuments. This park was established in 1992. This park has around 700 artworks to show and 200 still stored. Apart from it, this place was used to hide anti-aircraft weapons. Most of the statues are of artists involving famous artists, including Vera Mukhina and Yevgeny Vulchetich. Some of the art exhibition also happens here.
- Sokolniki Park, Sokolniki District: This park is in the Sokolniki District. This park has an amusement park and a play area for kids, and there are food stalls for snacks and beverages at the entrance of this park. The primary attraction season of this park is summer because, at that time, many flowers grow up, creating a flowerbed that looks so attractive. This park was established in 1878. It offers a wide variety of trees and plants to observe and different types and colors of birds. This park is spread over an area of 516 hectares and has a large pond in between.
A national park is a park that is built to conserve and protect flora and fauna. Many national parks are aimed at protecting endangered species of animals. National parks can be visited for education. You will learn about various species of animals and plants, and you can also closely observe their lifestyle. Many of the national parks demonstrate different ways to conserve nature. National parks in this country offer to stay in hotels or camping tours, helping you understand nature. The fresh winds in national parks coming out of trees will help you relax and get a night of better sleep. You can also opt for jungle safaris offered by most of the national parks. In this, you will get a jeep with a driver and a guide that will help you provide depth knowledge about the national parks that you might miss going alone. National parks are suitable for a vacation or a week with friends or family. Other than observing nature, you can also learn about the history of each park.
- Losiny Ostrov, Moscow: It is the oldest national park in Russia. This park is located in Moscow. This park covered an area of 116 km2 and was established in 1983. Out of this, around 83% of the total area is covered with forest. The remaining 2 % is covered with water, and 5% consists of a swamp. According to their stats, there are 44 species of mammals, ten species of birds, nine species of amphibians, five reptiles species, and 19 species of fish. It is the largest Urban Park in entire Russia. This park also helps you in gaining knowledge about various methods of protecting nature.
- Ugra National Park, Kalunga Oblast: This national park is located in Kalunga Oblast. This park is spread over an area of 986,245 m2 and was established in 1997. This park is divided into three significant parks, including the northern part, which includes river valley Ugra flowing downstream to the village of Kurovskoye. The southern region consists of Zhizdra and Vorotynsk's river valley, which is split into two districts. Some endangered species can be seen in this park, but they usually live in the lake. It became a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 2002.
- Lake Pleshcheyevo National Park, Yaroslavi Oblast: It is a national park built in 1997 and is spread over an area of 23,790 hectares. This park is located on Yaroslavl Oblast. Most of the territory is covered with jungles, which involves Scots pines. There are 790 species of plants registered with 93 different families. There are 60 species of animals, 210 species of birds, ten species of reptiles, 109 species of insect, and 19 species of fish. It is a famous national park, therefore, reaching here is very easy, you can get here by public bus.
- Smolenskoye Poozerye, Smolensk Oblast: This national park is located in Smolensk Oblast. This park covered an area of 146,237 hectares and was built in 1992. There is almost 2,50,000 visitor annually. Flora of this park consists of various plants, including pine, which covers 12%, 16% of the trees are surrounded by spruce, 38 % is covered by birch, and 13% is covered by black aspen elder, which forms a total of 6%. This park's fauna contains 54 species of mammals, 232 species of birds, 232 species of birds, and 37 fish species. The park also offers some recreational activities like a spa named "Holy Well." A trail for children. If you want to stay here, you must know that there are 30 guest houses and 32 tourist shelves for tourists. You can even visit the entire park by water on a boat.
- Orlovsky Polesye, Oryol Oblast: This park is present in Oryol Oblast. It is spread over an area of 77,745 hectares and was established in 1994. It is generally a winter national park, and many European bison are present here in a wide variety.
Beaches are a place created by sediments by water as they are connected with a water body. Climate plays a critical role in the formation of a beach. In general, these beaches are made up of sand. Beaches are famous for relaxing with your loved ones. You can perform different activities other than just relaxing on the beach. Many beaches offer you various water sports which are accompanied by a guide. You can also perform multiple sports like beach volleyball. It is the best place to enjoy yourself with friends. You can take a sunbath, which will provide you vitamin D, and it is also beneficial for curing many skin infections. Excess sunlight can cause tanning or sunburn; therefore, you must not sunbathe too much. You can spend some time breathing the fresh sea breeze. These beaches are free to visit, but various other facilities which they offer requires some amount. Walking on the beach is more beneficial than walking on a track because you tend to move through the sand. Some beaches provide you with camping, which will help you get an adventurous night and help you get a night of better sleep.
- Curonian Spit, Kaliningrad: It is a dunes spit which is present in Kaliningrad. The total length of this beach is 98 kilometers, and the area is 33,021 hectares. This beach lies between two countries – Russia and Lithuania. Curonian Spit beach is made of sand deposits and has many vendors selling various snacks and beverages. You can even play on this coast, but there are not many visitors who visit this beach.
- Lazurnaya Bay, Amursky Peninsula: This bay is present on the eastern side of the Amursky Peninsula. It is a sandy beach that offers many recreational activities, including water sports and many other sports. The sand deposited here is of high quality and are very dense. There are a lot of visitors who come to this beach annually. It is free for public use, and sometimes it also offers camping tours that provide fresh winds to sleep.
- Zelenogradsk Beach, Zeoenogradsk: It is a sand beach located in Zeoenogradsk. The beach has many hotels and cafes that offer various meals, fast food, or beverages like beer to enjoy an evening on the beach. You can also perform water sports like windsurfing, parasailing, and other such water sports activities. You can also perform snorkeling, discovering various marine creatures.
There are many landmarks in this country. They are the places that are very popular in the state among the locals and can be used as a substitute to get to a specific location. Landmarks can include a historical monument, a palace, and a religious place, including a church, mosque, temple, and others. Many of the landmarks are historical monuments or sites that are connected with Russian history. Other are some small and beautiful islands and churches where major festivals like Orthodox Christmas, Easter, and other festivals are celebrated. These landmarks are trendy and serve as major tourist spots. These landmarks can be easily reached by public transport.
- Catherine Palace, St. Petersburg
- Mayakovskaya, Moscow
- Winter Palace, St. Petersburg
- St Basil's Cathedral, Moscow
- Kizhi Island, Republic of Karelia
Museums are a place which exhibits various instruments, materials, artifacts, or elements which are related to different categories like science, history, arts, literature, etc. Many people have a misconception that visiting museums is very dull. Visiting a museum involves depth knowledge of various things. It teaches us to conserve ancient monuments and artifacts.
- Malye Korely: Open-air museum, Arkhangelsk Oblast
- Astrakhan Kremlin, Astrakhan Oblast
- Ulan-Ude Ethnographic Museum, Buryatia
- White House, Kyshtym
*Kaliningrad Amber Museum, Kaliningrad Oblast'
- Russian salad: This dish is famous all over the world. But, the Russian version of this salad is comparatively fresher, and also it requires a lesser quantity of mayonnaise. In the city of Moscow, the salad is called Oliver Salad. The base ingredients in this salad often include peas, fresh cucumber, diced potatoes, and an egg mixed with mayonnaise or sometimes sour cream.
- Smoked salmon: This dish is either served alone or sometimes served with pancakes. It is also done as marinated salmon, but that is another version. The saltwater or river fish is first smoked, then salted, after that, marinated. This dish requires expertise to sustain the delicate taste. Salted herring salads also accompany this dish. The commonly used fishes are carp, trout, strungen, zander, Tsar fish, etc.
- Shashlik: This dish is also called a Russian kebab. This dish is roasted on skewers. This dish is often served with bread, Russian tomato sauce, and Russian pickles. The Russian version, which is sold here, includes lamb, chicken, beef, or salmon. There are many shops, street shops, and vendors selling skewers of shashlik or shashlik sticks.
- Mushroom Julienne: A treat to vegetarians, this dish is purely vegetarian. The base ingredient of this dish is mushroom. It consists of mushrooms cut into thin slices, sour cream, cheese, bread is used. This dish holds a superior position in Russian cuisine. It is a pickled mushroom that is filled with creamy cheese.
- Russian Pancakes: The Russian pancakes are called Blini. For sweet toppings, they use white flour, and for fillings, they use buckwheat. There is also another version of this pancake made from cottage cheese named Syrniki. Jams and fruits often accompany them. Honey, sour cream, and condensed milk are condiments.
- Bread wine: Bread wine is a Russian soup. The base ingredient used to make this soup is cabbage and beet. It is one of the best drinks in Moscow in the winter season. The soup is filled with herbs. The soup is usually accompanied by potato, meat and garnished with a dollop of cream. It is a must-try dish in Russia.
- Borsch: It is also a soup. The base ingredient used to make this soup is cabbage. The other ingredients in this soup are carrots, meat, potatoes, onion. Other components depend on the consumer. Meat and chicken are also added. There is also another version that uses sauerkraut instead of cabbage.
- Shichi: It is also a kind of soup in Russia. This soup is quite filling as a meal itself because the soup consists of meat of all types. Some commonly used are ham, bacon, beef, and sausage. The vegetables used in Shichi are carrots, cabbage, potatoes, and onions. The garnishing is done by adding a sliced lemon.
- Solyanka: It is a non-alcoholic beverage. The main ingredient used to make this drink is black bread or rye black. Artificial color is later added to this drink to give the color. This drink has a shallow alcohol content. It is the reason it is considered a light drink. In Russia, this drink is considered to be non-alcoholic.
- Kvas: This drink is known as Polugar. It is also known as historic vodka. It is the highest quality wine present in the country. The alcohol content is as high as 38.5 percent. The main ingredients used are wheat, water, sugar, and yeast. It has an enjoyable flavor of rye. It is considered a simple and savory drink.
Surprisingly what you get to know is that you can drink the tap water of Russia. The water here is safe and meets the world health organization's guidelines for drinking water quality. The Russian government is very much sincere regarding the quality of tap water; it annually conducts around 30,000 quality tests on residents' water. As a tourist, it is your responsibility that you must not use wastewater of any kind and stop the wastage of water happening around you as much as possible. Russia is dependent on four primary sources for the supply of water. First is the Groundwater- 40% of Russian water depends on Groundwater. Second, are the glaciers. Russia is a cold country; therefore, it has many frozen glaciers that melt and provides tap-water. The third is recycled water- this technique is also known as reclaimed water. Desalination - Russia is a country covered with sea and experiences plenty of seawater. Therefore this process is used to reduce the amount of salt present in the water, which will make it fit for drinking and other use. You must not buy bottled water as it will create unnecessary pollution, so you must take a bottle and refill it every time.
There are many activities to perform in this country. This country is where you can find many types, including visiting museums, beaches, artistic monuments, and various other sports activities. There are two types of sports activities: ground activities and water activities. Water activities like snorkeling, scuba diving, or water surfing are available. Visiting various museums and cultural monuments provides you knowledge about the ancient people and their lifestyle, which will help you understand this country's culture and traditions. You can connect with local peoples if you don't know the country's culture and traditions.
- Visit Museums
- Visit National Parks
- Visit cathedrals
- Relax on the beach
There are many accommodation options available in each city in this country. These accommodation options depend entirely on the luxury and facilities each of the categories provides. You can find many luxury hotels or resorts at higher costs. While checking in at any place, you must confirm their policies and rules so that it won't trouble you later. Some of the adventurous and unique types of hotels available, including capsule hotel rooms, are small in a capsule shape and can be booked cheaply. There are many accommodation options available, including green hotels, hostels, guesthouses, camping. Green hotels are hotels that promote nature and helps in conserving it. Eco-hotels are an excellent option if you want to stay in a hotel. Hostels are generally shared rooms, and a guesthouse is a place where anyone can live for a short period, and the cost is lesser than hotel rooms. Apartments here are generally 2 or 3 bedrooms, one hall and one kitchen flat available, most of the apartments on rent for travelers are present in prime locations. Camping is a short-term accommodation option in which you stay in a tent under the night sky without any shelter in a campground, beach, or generally in a jungle between trees. Below are these categories described in detail. These accommodation types are the main types because these four types are the most available accommodation options available in entire Russia. You can even meet many new people, so even if you are traveling alone, you won't feel lonely.
These are different from standard hotels. Green hotels are certified hotels by the government of that country. These hotels adopt methods that help in the conservation of plants and natural resources. These hotels usually have a garden full of plants, which gives it a beautiful look because of the flowers. They use flower plants like roses, marigold attached along with their pots for decoration. Accommodating here will help you to stay in nature and supporting these hotels in conserving it. They generate their electricity with solar panels and windmills and use invertors to store them in emergencies. Most of the dishes offered here are made up of organic ingredients either brought daily from their self-maintained farms or contact the local farmers for their daily products. Organic food is free from chemicals and pesticides, which may harm our body and damage our digestive system. The pollution which they create is significantly less if compared with regular hotels. The bedsheet and towels are made up of cotton or other natural fabrics and are handwoven by local artisans. Therefore green hotels also create a lot of employment. Even the plates or other cutlery they use are made out of wood or bamboo rather than plastic containers. The soap or shampoo in the washroom is made up of herbal and organic products that do not cause any harm to the skin. There are a lot of green hotels in Russia in each state. They might cost slightly higher than usual hotels but can be neglected for being eco-friendly.
Hostels and Guest Houses
Hostels are best for solo travelers as this accommodation option offers you only a room which is often shared by two persons. This sharing policy can differ from city to city. Staying in a hostel room can be immensely beneficial as hostel rooms are offered at a low price; therefore, you can opt for them even if you are running low on budget. As many of the hostel rooms are generally shared rooms; consequently, you can meet a lot of people, including travelers from different countries. From them, you can learn about other cultures, traditions, languages, and lifestyles. Russia is a cold country; therefore, you must have a water heater and a room heater. Some of the hostel rooms have chimneys for cold weather. Using those Chimneys will not be advised as it requires burning of wood to provide heat and when wood gets burnt, they produce a lot of smoke which will create pollution and if the chimneys are not cleaned enough, or there is any blockage it will be me too much suffocating as the smoke will be filled in the room. Hostel rooms allow you to make friends and provide self-confidence. Many hostel rooms offer one-time complimentary meals—there are different hostels for travelers and students. The main difference is the time restriction faced by hostels for students; therefore, you must choose your hotel room accordingly. Many solo travelers travel to Russia for different purposes; therefore, many hostel rooms are available in each country.
There are many apartments which are available for rent. There are different apartments available; they are two-bedroom, one hall and one kitchen or three-bedroom one hall one kitchen. There are some apartments which offer luxurious facilities, including a swimming pool and gym. An apartment is the best option if you want to stay in Russia for a longer time. The benefits are - it gives us complete privacy to enjoy with our friends, family, or partner. An apartment helps a person to be independent as you have to do your household work alone. Many of the apartments are in a prime location with sea-facing; therefore, it is advised to rent an upper floor so that you can enjoy the sea breeze along with morning and sunset. There is a gym in every apartment, which is free for its residents. Other than this there are a tennis court and badminton court built in many apartments. You will also get premium security in the apartments as these apartments are covered with cameras all over. The rent of the flats entirely depends on the facilities they are providing and at which location they are; therefore, it is advised to pre-book them before traveling as there is a lot of rush during summer.
Couchsurfing is popular in Russia, and there are a total of 1,728,701 hosts. Couchsurfing means staying at any locals house with his permission, and in return, you will help him in his daily household work. Many people in Russia allows any traveler to stay in the house without any charge. The crime rate in Russia is low, which allows safe and successful Couchsurfing. Focusing on Couchsurfing's benefits, Couchsurfing is a very pocket-friendly accommodation as most of the couch surfers do not charge any amount. By Couchsurfing, you will get an opportunity to meet Russian locals who will help you in understanding their traditions, cultures, lifestyle, and perspectives. They can also tell you about many different hidden spots to enjoy and some money-saving tips. They can also warn you about various scams that regularly happen there, including taxi scams or minor robberies. The main thing that you should keep in mind is that you must not expect comfort in Couchsurfing; this means you can even get your room if you are lucky enough and if the host can afford it, so you must not keep a mindset of getting comfortable space, you can even get a mattress to sleep at night. Other such warnings are that you must be alerted with your things as any host can do some scams, including robbery. This accommodation type can not always be reliable as some of the hosts can even cancel Couchsurfing at the end minute; therefore, you must keep a backup accommodation option ready.
Camping in Russia can be very adventurous, but many of the campgrounds are closed most of the time because of its low temperature. The best month to go camping are June, July, and September. In these months, there is summer in Russia, which offers excellent camping adventures. Many camping adventures can be done on different beaches, which will provide various health benefits, including better sleep. Summer invites many insects; therefore, you must carry the required products, including a sleeping bag, tent, mosquito repellent cream, etc. Camping also allows you to observe nature in detail. There is a camping tour available in the summers, which involves many people trekking and camping. The main features are that you will be able to make friends and socialize with people very well. Other than this they offer food, dance, camping, etc.
|Central Russia (Federal City of Moscow, Ivanovo Oblast, Kaluga Oblast, Kostroma Oblast, Moscow Oblast, Ryazan Oblast, Smolensk Oblast, Tver Oblast, Tula Oblast, Vladimir Oblast, Yaroslavl Oblast)|
The richest side in the entire country, dominated by spectacular architecture and historical buildings. It is the country's gate to Europe, and houses the capital city Moscow.
|Chernozemye (Belgorod Oblast, Bryansk Oblast, Kursk Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Voronezh Oblast)|
South to Central Russia, the region is famous for its rich, deep, black soil (Chernozem in Russian means "Black soil"). This region played as the important battleground during World War II
|Northwestern Russia (Federal City of Saint Petersburg, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Karelia, Komi Republic, Leningrad Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Nenetsia, Novgorod Oblast, Pskov Oblast, Vologda Oblast)|
Home to the former imperial capital Saint Petersburg also known as Northern capital. It combines some beautiful landscapes of large lakes Ladoga and Onega, medieval forts of Pskov Oblast with the lacustrine region of Karelia and provides a gate for the country to enter Scandinavian territories.
|Kaliningrad Oblast (often considered as a part of Northwestern Russia)|
The only exclave of Russia, the Kaliningrad oblast allows a gate for Russia to share borders with Poland and Lithuania, and is a key site for where the 2018 FIFA World Cup will be held.
|Southern Russia (Adygea, Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai, North Ossetia, Rostov Oblast, Stavropol Krai)|
The warmest region in the entire country, with beautiful resort cities such as subtropical Sochi, and also brings a path to the mountainous North Caucasus.
|Volga Region (Astrakhan Oblast, Chuvashia, Kirov Oblast, Mari El, Mordovia, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Penza Oblast, Samara Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Tatarstan, Udmurtia, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Volgograd Oblast)|
The most industrialized region in the entire country, known for producing wide-scale military equipment in cities such as Izhevsk. Region is widely known for its rich culture and history.
|Urals (Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khantia-Mansia, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, Yamalia)|
One of the wealthiest regions, known for producing much of the resources Russia needs today and is named after vast Ural mountains.
|Siberia (Altai Krai, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Tomsk, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai)|
The largest area in the country diverse in landscape and yearly temperatures with stunning lakes, world longest rivers, but swampy in most part in the center and north. Provides a gate to enter into much of Asia.
|Russian Far East (Amur Oblast, Chukotka, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Krai, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Oblast, Yakutia)|
One of the coldest places in all of Russia, even home to the coldest city in the world, Yakutsk. Worldwide renown for boasting national parks, beautiful scenery and mountains and even allows the traveler to see the volcanoes of Kamchatka. The region is also a gate to enter into North Korea, China and Mongolia.
Here is a representative sample Russian cities with their Anglicized and Russian Cyrillic names:
- Moscow (Москва) — Russia's gargantuan capital is one of the world's greatest cities and has endless attractions to offer an adventurous visitor
- Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) — Russia's cultural and former political capital is home to the Hermitage, one of the world's best museums, while the city center is a living open air museum in its own right, making this city one of the world's top travel destinations. It's also the second largest city in the country.
- Irkutsk (Иркутск) — the world's favorite Siberian city, located within an hour of Lake Baikal on the Trans-Siberian Railway
- Kaliningrad (Калинингра́д) — also known by its original German name, Königsberg, is the capital city of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia.
- Kazan (Казань) — the capital of Tatar culture is an attractive city in the heart of the Volga Region with an impressive kremlin
- Krasnodar (Краснодар) — is one the most important historical and cultural centers of Southern Russian and Northern Caucus region.
- Nizhny Novgorod (Нижний Новгород) — often overlooked despite being one of the largest cities in Russia, Nizhny Novgorod is well worth a visit for its kremlin, Sakharov museum, and nearby Makaryev Monastery
- Samara (Сама́ра) — major economic, industrial and cultural centre and has a population of over 1,164,000.
- Sochi (Сочи) — Russia's favorite Black Sea beach resort has been largely unknown to foreigners, but that is set to change in a major way when it hosts the 2014 Winter Olympic Games
- Vladivostok (Владивосток) — often referred to (somewhat ironically) as "Russia's San Francisco," full of hilly streets and battleships, this is Russia's principal Pacific city and the terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway
- Volgograd (Волгоград) — formerly Stalingrad, the scene of perhaps the deciding battle of World War II, and now home to a massive war memorial
- Vyborg (Выборг) - near the Finnish border, it was in fact Finland's second-largest city until World War II, when it was handed to the Soviets as war reparations.
- Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбург) — the center of the Urals region and one of Russia's principal cultural centers is a good stop on the Trans-Siberian Railway and an arrival point for visitors to the Urals, the second Russian financial center.
Getting There and Moving Around
The only way to reach Russia is through airways because its airways network is so strong and quick that no other means of transport has been given international charge. There are many other rides available in this country, but those are limited to neighboring countries. Other rides include ferry, taxi, train but the quickest means of transport to travel here is the airways, and it is the most convenient without wastage of much time. Russia's total area is so large that it cannot be moved around through walking or cycling, but there are other means of transport to move around each city.
There are a total of 227 registered airports in this country. It means that reaching this country by airways is extremely easy. However, it may vary if the city you chose to visit provides you a flight network connected to your place; otherwise, you can even reach the nearest possible town and take a bus, car, or metro. Airways are the most convenient and quickest way to travel to any city in this country. The busiest international airport in Russia is in Moscow, which annually handles approx 4 99,33,000 passengers. It is a massive airport with many facilities and technological advances.
Buses cannot reach here as there is no international bus system available for any of the customers. In most of Russia's cities, the local public bus is the most preferred means of transport. You can even travel intercity through buses at different buses. There are government and private companies which run the bus facility. The ticket prices of these buses are very high. Most of the buses are fully air-conditioned with a lot of space to relax; these facilities are specially built-in night buses that run from midnight and stop at 6 AM.
There are a total of 17 local railway stations that connects the entire of Russia. These trains are available in each state and can be used at any time. If you want, you can even pre-book in advance as most of the time; it fills up faster as tourism rates are very high. The trains offer you a scenic and fantastic view if you want to enjoy while riding on a train. You can purchase a ticket online to waste paper.
Hitchhiking means asking for a free ride from any stranger going in the same direction. This type of means of transport does not require any cost. For successful hitchhiking, you must be present on some highways or high traffic areas so that you can easily attract any passerby. This city's crime rate is also meager; therefore, there are significantly fewer chances of getting scammed or robbed.
There are many other means of transport, including taxi but taxi is not advised and should only be used in emergencies. Taxis are not recommended because it creates a lot of smoke and causes air pollution. The best means of transport are trams and the metro.
Sustainable shopping involves purchasing those products which have a positive effect on nature and health. Sustainable products involve every eco-friendly measure required in its production. They consume energy source for its production and is usually made of organic and natural elements. As the pollution rates are low, many people and the government try to maintain the low pollution rate as much as possible. Therefore many markets are available which offer sustainable shopping. Sustainable shopping involves buying second-hand products because it has many benefits as it saves raw material and resources that would require making a new product. It also saves a lot of land and energy needed in dumping and disposing of hat product. Second-hand products are readily available at many shops and are less costlier than new. Other ways of sustainable shopping include eco-fashion stores; these stores have dresses made using eco-friendly measures. The cloth used in these fashion products is generally made up of natural fabrics such as cotton or silk, and these require much handwork and less machine work, therefore creating a lot of employment. Other are flea market and street vendors, which usually sell ready to eat products prepared on the spot giving hygiene satisfactions. Everyone should buy sustainable products as it helps in the generation of employment, supports local business like street vendors, and positively affects health and nature.
There are a total of 213 plastic recycling plants based in Russia and 49 metal recycling plants. In recycling, reusing those products that are not used anymore by changing their shape, size, or can be used in any other way. Recycling can be done on many elements. Paper can be recycled and used in the form of a newspaper. Metal or tin can be melted and cast into a soft drink, oil, sweets; others can produce. Steel or glass can be reused for gem rings or small crystals, or other products. Recycling has many benefits as it saves the energy and fuel required to dispose of it. There are two main methods of recycling, and those are – landfill and incineration. Landfills are a vast open space where garbage is dumped collectively; it can be a specific dumping ground or any construction site. Incineration means using electric country converted into thermal energy to dispose of waste. It is an environmental method to dispose of garbage, but it requires a lot of resources. Landfill, when not taken care of, can cause air pollution, which might disturb residential areas near it. Recycling also saves a lot of raw material. It doesn't require raw material to produce a new product; therefore, it does not use non-renewable resources such as iron and other such elements.
Anything that is of no use is termed as waste; therefore, it must be dumped in a landfill. Waste management policies are not that efficient in Russia. According to stats, 59% of the total population says they are unsatisfied with the garbage disposal. If not treated properly, waste can cause health hazards like asthma, air pollution, soil pollution, bad smell, etc. Proper waste management policies involve installing dustbins all over the country or assigning a separate door to door garbage collector so that you might not have garbage piled up. Many locals try to dump this garbage in the sea or river, thus creating water pollution. As a responsible tourist, it is your responsibility that you must not create pollution.
Work and Study Abroad
There are many job options which are available in this country. The primary jobs are advertising, education, and digital marketing. Many organizations are opened recently, which creates a need for the advertisement for publicity of organizations and products, so if you are highly qualified with the digital, computer, and other skills, you can grab this opportunity. If you have an excellent education degree, you can become a teacher very well as there is a need for a teacher very much in the entire country. As English is becoming a universally accepted language, you can teach this language. You can even work part-time in this country. Due to new organizations' growth, they want many digitally skilled people who can create, edit, and run their company websites. The quality of education this country provides is of top quality. Working or studying abroad helps you boost your self-confidence as other students are sitting in my class. You can even make friends and can increase your socializing skills. It also helps in becoming independent.
Student exchange is a program which is held by several universities. In these programs, you will be sent to the foreign country's universities to pursue your remaining degree. In Russia, the education quality is acceptable; therefore, many universities offer you student exchange programs. It will help a student learn different skills and methods to do the same variety as other exercises. The exchange student program will also help students in developing self-confidence.
Au pair is a person who is from a foreign country which helps the local people of the country he is visiting and helps them by taking care of their child and in return he asks them to get a space to live in their house. The crime rate of this city is shallow, which allows many au pair in this house. As it is a developed country, many parents are working; therefore, they are worried about their child. You can grab this opportunity and ask them if they are in search of an au pair. It is advised that you must confirm with the locals and should understand their rules and regulation. It is the most pocket-friendly way to live in any city. You can even teach their child. Au pairing will help you get close with any local family and understand their culture, lifestyle, and preferences in detail; you can even learn their language.
Volunteering means helping out without any cost. There are a lot of NGOs where you can readily volunteer. These NGOs are established with their motives. Some of the NGOs are very active regarding public riots and other such social affairs. Some of the organization focuses on preventing nature from getting destroyed. They hold a lot of seminars, workshops in a public place so that many of the people can learn from it. Some are established to protect animals and their rights. These NGOs often have T.V interviews or newspapers, which makes it popular. Some NGOs are opened to promote health and motivate people to remain healthy by showing different presentations. Many NGOs are present in this country with many aims, including those who become active during some crisis.