Eco-friendly travel guide to Turkey advises how to be a responsible tourist. Learn how to travel in a sustainable way and how to respect the local people and culture. Make your trip green by supporting locally owned hotels, organic restaurants and other businesses. Read more on how to protect the environment by making conscientious choices and how to travel green in Turkey, Asia / Europe.
- Air quality: 2 / 5
- Bus connections: 4.5 / 5
- Train connections: 4 / 5
- Hitchhiking: 5 / 5
- National parks: 5 / 5
- Outdoor activities: 5 / 5
- Locals' English level: 2 / 5
- Safety: 3 / 5
- Accommodation: US$25 - $100
- Budget per day: US$03 - $100
- 1 Responsible Travel
- 2 Air Quality and Pollution
- 3 Respect the Culture
- 4 Top 10 Places to Visit
- 5 Explore
- 6 Eat
- 7 Drink
- 8 Activities
- 9 Accommodation
- 10 Regions
- 11 Cities
- 12 Getting There and Moving Around
- 13 Sustainable Shopping
- 14 Recycling
- 15 Work and Study Abroad
- 16 See Also
Turkey is an Islamic country present on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia and comes under the transcontinental countries as its location is between the European, African, and Asian continents. Turkey shares its borders with Greece, [[Bulgaria[[, the Black Sea, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Aegean Sea. The city's capital is Ankara, but the most popular tourist city is Istanbul, as it is the largest city. The country covers an area of 783,356 square kilometers and has more than 83 million residents. Turkey has struggled for years to become independent, and on 29 October 1923, it finally got its declaration of Republic. The majority of the ethnic groups are; Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Albanians, Laz, Circassians, and Bosniaks. You will find that Islam is the leading religion that most locals follow. Turkey's significance is not just in political, economic, and historic areas; instead, its culture is one of the fascinating ones in the world. Turkish food, drinks, festivals, and people are what attracts most people. There is a lot of historical significance connected to this country as it is home to many ancient temples, mosques, archaeological sites, and many more monuments. While visiting such a significant state, you must travel responsibly.
- Since the pollution levels are very high, you should not contribute to them. You can help in improving the pollution levels by opting for public transports or electronic vehicles. Walking and bicycling are also great alternatives, but you can only use them in limited areas. The country’s main contributors to pollution are motorized vehicles. The government has put into action various laws and prohibitions, but the conditions remain the same.
- The best way to represent your gratitude to the local community for their hospitality and help is by helping them improve their standard of living. You can help in two ways. The first way is by participating in volunteering activities, whereas the second method is by buying from local businesses. These are excellent methods to support the local communities. You will find that upon helping them, they will respect you and even offer you various tips, advice, accommodation place, and whatnot. It will also help you understand the local culture and art in-depth.
- Instead of opting for brand new items, you can opt for recycled or reusable items. These items are cheaper and friendlier to the environment. While living in a foreign city temporarily, using brand new items will only take a toll on your budget and create a shortage of money while buying food or finding the right accommodation. Therefore, you must avoid the use of one-time-use plastic and adopt eco-friendly practices.
By following this advice, you can travel responsibly in Turkey. You will also find that this will also help you understand the locals' local culture, traditions, and livelihood. As a tourist, it is your responsibility not to cause any adverse impact on the local environment. Therefore, you must travel in an eco-friendly manner.
Air Quality and Pollution
Air pollution in this country is very high and is a national environmental issue. According to various surveys and investigations, this country's air quality is above the standard limit set by the World Health Organisation. Every year around 30,000 people because from air pollution-related illness, which comprises 8% of the total country's death. The main reason for pollution in this country is its road transportation. Cars and trucks that consume diesel discharge heavy chemicals which include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and other substances that pollute the air. Another reason polluted air other than traffic is cooking. Consumption of coal still happens in places like Ankara, where the annual income of the people is pretty low. The coal which they use is of low quality.
Another reason is the industrialization and extraction work, which regularly happens around almost every city of Turkey. The smoke of heavy machines and the dust which is generated in construction also contributes to the problem of pollution. During the constitutional meeting, many suggestions came forward to reduce air pollution. Quitting the entire coal and bringing electric cars were the most effective and were the ones that were selected. Air pollution can cause asthma, choking, lung diseases, which can even cause death. Ankara is the most polluted city in Turkey. Air pollution affects humans and affects nature as various pollutants create smog, global warming, and other such diseases.
Another type of pollution which has massively contributed to the overall problem in recent years is noise pollution due to the massive demand for diesel-operated vehicles as public transport which considerably increased the traffic creating a lot of noise pollution because of the noise of engine and horns. Another reason for noise pollution is various construction sites because of the massive machinery like drills, which create a lot of noise. Noise can cause improper sleep, headache, nausea, dizziness, migraine, and other such issues.
Respect the Culture
We should respect the culture of every country we are visiting. People have an emotional connection towards the culture and traditions of their country. You can learn about different traditions and cultures of different groups. Respecting other cultures can help you get familiar with the locals.
Turkey has a culture that is a blend of western culture, including Turkic and Anatolian, which resulted from the Ottoman Empire's westernization. The cultural combination is because of meeting people from central Asia. The turk cultures is portrayed through many art forms like paintings as they sent many of the painters at a young age to Europe to learn details. When they returned, there was a western sense of art in Turkish paintings. Different carpet weaving styles reflect other skills; most of the carpet designs are a pure reflection of Islamic art. Literature also plays a prominent role in any culture. Turkish literature is a smooth blend of influences. Most of the Turkish literature is influenced heavily by Persian and Arabic literature. There are many architectures built which were influence by European styles from the 18th century. Other than this, there are many such shreds of evidence like mentions of culture and its relation with European cultures, arts, music, dance, etc.
Top 10 Places to Visit
- Castle of St. Peter, Bodrum: It is also known as Bodrum Castle. It is present in Turkey's port city Bodrum. There are four towers in the castle that are marked as French, English, Italian, and German. These names are after the countries that constructed them. After this, the Ottoman Empire took over the castle. Under the Ottoman Empire, the palace became a mosque after they took over the chapel. During this period, the addition of a minaret was the only change in the castle. In 1962, Turkey's government decided to change the palace to a museum dedicated to the underwater discoveries of shipwrecks in the sea named Aegean. Since then, this museum became the Bodrum Museum of Underwater discoveries. The collection kept here includes ancient bronze, clay, and iron items. There is also a collection of amphoras here.
- Gerome National Park, Nevsehir Province: Its full name is Goreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia. It is present in the Nevsehir Province of Turkey. It became a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The park is known for its landscape that consists of rocky terrain eroded by wind and water. The most exciting thing is that the national park has interconnection with underground settlements. It is present in the region of the volcano. The entire park consists of high hills and plateaus, with dissection by river valleys and streams. The earliest humans who lived here dates back to the 4th century. The community who lived here goes by the name anchorite. But later, this community started to live underground so that attacks from Arabs could be avoided. The underground village is a recent finding, and it's fascinating to see it.
- Dolmabahce Palace, Istanbul: It is a historic building in Istanbul. It is historically significant because it became the main administrative center during the Ottoman era from 1856 to 1922. It is one of Turkey's largest palaces, with a total area of 11.1 acres or 45,000-meter square. It consists of 46 halls, 68 toilets, and 285 rooms. The infrastructure of the Ottoman period is well-preserved, and this palace has silver and gold decorations. As per the records, to gild the ceiling, approximately they used fourteen tonnes of gold. The chandelier in the hallway consists of 750 lamps, and its total weight is 4.5 tonnes. The rooms of the hall fall into three categories. They are medhal hall that is the main entrance, the secretariat's rooms. The most historical place is Ataturuk's room. It is the room where Mustafa Kemal Ataturk spent his life's last day. One more interesting fact is that he died at 9:05, and at that time, all the clocks in the palace also stopped. The watches are working as per Turkey's time, but the clock present in his room is still at 9:05. It is a must-visit place in Turkey for everyone to experience a historical building.
- Anitkabir, Ankara: The literal meaning of Anitkabir is a memorial tomb. It is a burial place or mausoleum of the Turkish leader during the War of Independence. He also became Turkey's first president. His name is Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Prof. Emin Onat, a famous architect, designed the tomb. The construction began in 1944, and it ended in 1953. It took a total of 9 years to build. It first opened on 1 September 1953. Anitkabir is also the burial place of the second president of Turkey. There are also many sculptures present that have their significance. Some of them are the lion's road, Turkish men's sculpture, Turkish women's sculpture, mausoleum guards, etc.
- Ulucanlar Prison Museum, Ankara: It is also known as Ulucanlar Cezaevi Muzesi. As it is evident from its name, a prison sat in place of the museum in the past. After following specific restoration, the prison became the Prison Museum. Altindag Municipality repaired the penitentiary. The museum first opened in 2011. The prison dates back to 1995 and is a historic building that can not be demolished, altered, or extended. Hence, converting it into a museum was the only option. Many things like the Turkish bath and others are still present here. Among other notable exhibits is Wax sculpture in Ulucanlar, Printing Press Ulucanlar, and Ward of Ulucanlar. One more exciting thing is that the visitors can remain in the cell for 15 minutes, handcuffed. It is to make them feel like a prisoner if they want.
- Adaland, Aydin: It is a large water park with many rides, including loop slides, tunnel slides, amazon family slides, a water coaster, and many more. Not only rides, but there are also many activities, like surfing and swimming in a pool, specially made for kids. It is a fun-filled park for every person in the family. The kids' area is a bit shallow in comparison to the other places. The parents can enjoy the loop slides or tunnel slides, which land you in the water. In these rides, children can not go to extreme heights and speed.
- Great Mosque of Kairouan, North Turkey: The Great Mosque also goes by the name of the Mosque of Uqba. It is a world heritage site by UNESCO and has no shape in particular. It covers an area of 9,000 meters square. On the outer, this place looks like a fortress because its walls are 1.90 meters thick. By just looking at the construction, we can make out that this mosque went through renovation many times. Different stones like granite, marble, byzantine, and porphyry are present in the courtyard from different eras. In North Turkey, this place is the largest and the most impressive monument of Islam. There is also a historical library in which various manuscripts and scrolls on calligraphy are present. There is also a museum where there are many old relics and other artworks from Fatimid Zirid's period.
- Ilica Plaza, Izmir: It is present on the Cesme peninsula and is one of the most beautiful and tourist loved beaches. The sand here is a white-powdered one, and the crystalline turquoise water from the Aegean Sea makes it a great combination. The most exciting fact is that this beach does not get many crowds like the other Turkish beaches. You can relax on the beach or also go on boating or a sailing excursion. If you love history, there are many ancient sites present near the plaza. Moreover, the water here is shallow near the coast, so we can say that children are safe here. Thermal springs are also present here, which relaxes and heals the body. It is also an internationally recognized place for kitesurfing or windsurfing. The beach is approximately 1.5-kilometers long. One more interesting thing here is a mud bath, which can cure many illnesses and stress-related problems.
- The Land of Legends Theme Park, Antalya: It is a theme park with a resort that offers spectacular rooms for adults and Disney-themed rooms for children. The theme park consists of various activities like fun-filled rides, entertainment shows, and many others. Among the rides, one is the Happy Carousel ride, a 55 person capacity, and the minimum age is seven years. The next one is a zippy zappy coaster. It is a roller coaster with 18 person capacity whose maximum speed is 50 kilometers per hour. Another exciting thing here is Galeon, which is a mix of water and roller coaster. Its full speed is 20-kilo meters per hour, and its capacity is 40 persons. Another thrilling ride is the typhoon coaster, a roller coaster that will end you in water. It reaches a height of 43 meters and then comes down in the water at 86 kilometers per hour. There are other rides for children, like funny swing, around the world, and many more. Various entertainment shows involve dolphin shows, boat parades, Chateau laser shows, water shows, and many more. It is truly a place filled with fun, and you can stay here as well.
- Kaleici, Antalya: The literal meaning of the name is inner kale, where kale means a fortress. It is a historical center present in Antalya in Turkey. During the ancient period, the whole city had a wall surrounding till modern times. The city has various structures that are as old as Ottoman, Roman, Seljuk, Turkish and Byzantine eras. All the houses here are of ancient structures. In some places, local people still live, but the other homes are now restaurants, handicraft shops, hotels, and other shops. To enhance the tourism of the city, the government of Antalya is doing an extensive restoration in the city. The town has three parks, namely Ataturk Park, Yavuz Ozcan Park, and Karaaliouglu Park. The other landmarks in the city are Pazar Hamami, Yivli Minare, Kalekapisi, Hadrian's Gate, Clock Tower, Imaret Madrasa, Ahi Kizi Masjid, and many more.
There are many places to explore in this country. In every city of Turkey, there are different things to explore and see. Visiting something new gives you positive energy. It provides peace to the mind. It helps us to gain knowledge about various new things. There are city parks where you can spend a lot of time with your friends and family. National parks are to explore multiple new plants and animals and learn how to conserve them. There are numerous beaches where you can explore multiple new things, including coral reefs and many other marine creatures. There are museums where you can gain in-depth knowledge of different things, including history, science, art, etc.
There are many city parks in the entire country. City parks are best for spending some good time with your loved ones, including your family, friends, and partner. You can go for a day picnic as these parks have a lot of space to enjoy. Other than this, there are other parks, including those suitable for a morning or an evening walk. Walking is the most appropriate way to remain fit and to keep your body healthy. You can play any outdoor sports you want to play here and support sports activities. Many parks have their court for various sports. You can meet many locals here which can provide you a lot of knowledge about the country. Different street vendors sell many snacks and beverages at low cost; therefore, you must buy something from them and support these small and local businesses if possible.
- Merkez Park, Adana: A central urban-type park spread over an area of 33 acres, present in Adana. It is near the Sabanci Mosque; on the east, it is associated with Sheraton Hotel and bordered by Fuzili street on the west. You can observe a lot of landscaping as there are around 70 species of trees and 40 species of plants. There is a playground for children, which is 2.2 hectares large. It is a theater with 2100 passengers where many dramas, play concerts, and movies occur. This park is free for public use and is open every day. There is a boat club built next to this theatre. If you want to cycle here, you can easily do it as there is a walking and running track of 3 km.
- Karaalioglu Park, Antalya: This park is situated in Antalya and is accessible by foot or tram. This park gives a fantastic view of rivers. There is a fortress known as Hidirlik Tower. A local municipal theatre also serves as a significant tourist attraction. You can walk in this garden, barefoot on the green grass, which will relax and calm your body. The sea breeze reaching this park will provide relaxation to the body.
- Emirgan Park, Istanbul: It is an urban-type park located in Istanbul. The park covers a general area of around 115 to 117 acres, and massive walls surround it. There are two ponds decorated by 120 species of plants in this park, along with a fountain. This park is famous for its recreational activities like jogging tracks and picnic tables, allowing anyone to come here and enjoy the view with their friends and family.
- Gulhane Park, Istanbul: Gulhane Park is another beautiful park in Istanbul. It is a historical style urban park. This park opened in 1912, making this park the oldest among all other gardens in Istanbul. There were zoo and picnic areas in earlier times, but later it was removed to gain open space. There is a pool in this park, which also faced renovation and conversion into the modern style. The walking tracks have giant trees. There are some historical monuments built in this city.
- Ataturk Park, Mersin: It is a public type park situated at the Shore of the Mediterranian Sea. The area of this park is 16 hectares. There are a few famous monuments, including the Refah monument, which reflected the Refah tragedy. There is an exhibition center in the park. On the east side, this park has harbor facilities, and on the west, its rivers connect to it. Ismet Inonu Boulevard is associated with this park on the north side. This park was a significant hub of open theatres in earlier times, but later, they removed many meaningful activities. However, it is still planning to convert this park into a culture park.
National parks are protected areas and are home to endangered and rare species. There is almost one national park in each city. And the cities which do not have national parks share it with its neighboring city. There are different health benefits of visiting national parks. It helps in gaining in-depth knowledge of various species of plants as well as animals. National parks offer you a close view of their natural habitats, how they get their food, and many other things. These national parks are required to be paid and should get a ticket to enter. There is a small canteen built for snacks, meals, and beverages. Some of the national parks have a kid's play area. You can come here with your friends to enjoy while learning various new things. Some of the national parks offer you a guide or a safari tour accompanied by a multilingual guide and a driver who will organize everything.
- Mountain Ararat National Park, Iğdır: This park is present in the Anatolian region in Turkey. Many of the people who love visiting it often visit it crossing through the mountains. There are a lot of plants which are available in this park for observing. Various animals are present here, including Grey and Rock partridges, vultures, and other mammals.
- Altinbesik cave National Park, Antalya: This park became a national park in 1994. It offers a wide variety of species and is present in the Antalya province. The cave serves as the tourist attraction for most of the tourist. However, you can also see some fox, boar, and wild goats. It can be accessed only by waters. If calculated horizontally, the cave is 2500 meters long, and some are still active. As rocks surround this cave, the average temperature remains between 16 to 18 degrees Celcius.
- Altindere National Park, Trabzon: This park is present in the black sea region. There is a monastery in the garden, which serves as the leading site. You can even stay in these national parks as there are a guesthouse and a library containing books, including the national park's history. The entrance to this park has a long set of staircases.
- Lake Gala National Park, Edirne: This park first opened in 2005 within the Edirne provided. The area of this park is 6090 hectares. This park has two lakes connected with it. There are a lot of birds which can be seen in this cares. When calculated, 45,000 birds are present in this national park of various species. As this national park has lakes, it is home to 16 species.
- Hatila Valley National Park, Artvin: It is a park which comes under the Artivin province. It spreads over an area of 16,900 hectares. It was established in 1994 and is now under the ministry of forest and water management. There are two types of trees present; those are deciduous and evergreen types. Hatila valley has rich plants along with different species.
Beaches are a place where everyone loves to relax. These place which have a water body on one side provides plenty of refreshment and relaxation. Many of the beaches here are a result of sand getting deposited onto the shore of it. Beaches are useful to explore marine life. You can play individual sports at these beaches, like beach volleyball, swimming. You can even try out your creativity skills on the sand by drawing on the sand. Walking on the sand is considered to be more challenging than walking on a road. Sunbathing on a beach also helps in curing various fungi infection. Other than this, sun rays are also useful in providing vitamin D to the body. But if you stay longer, exposing your body directly to the sun, it can cause sunburn, which can be painful; therefore, you must apply sunscreen on your body before exposing to the sun for long. Beaches are efficient in relaxing the mind, reducing stress, anxiety, and better sleep.
- Iztuzu, Dalya: It is a beautiful beach in Dalya. This beach consists of sand. There is a bar and a hotel located on this beach, which does not cost too much. Beer and other beverages are readily available on this beach.
- Pantara, Xanthos Valley: It is a beach located in Xanthos valley. A beautiful beach which has many visitors as this is a famous beach. There is a beach volleyball court along which is accessible for the public at a small cost. This beach offers many sports activities, including snorkeling and other such sports. You can also rent a surfing board or can bring your own.
- Cirali, The Turquoise Coast: This beach is present along the Turquoise Coast. The beach connects with the Mediterranean sea, which is rich in minerals. There is a separate place for people who want to sunbathe. There are a spa and massage corner to provide relaxation at a fixed cost; you can find various massages available here. Next to the spa corner, a restaurant serves different cuisines, and in beverages, you can find beer of any kind.
- Antalya, Konyatti: Antalya beach is in Konyatti. It is a famous beach in its region which provides different facilities to the people. The beach is free and without any entry charges, but the facilities are not free. You can also hire a local Turkish guide who can teach you surfing.
Landmarks are a place that acts as a substitute for a specific spot. These are famous tourist attractions of the city, therefore, becoming the landmark. As these are trendy places, consequently, many people use them to find a specific spot. There are many landmarks in this country. These landmarks are in the form of a mosque, which is from ancient architecture.
- Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: It is a mosque located in Istanbul. The height of this mosque is 55 meters, the length of this mosque is 82 meters, and this mosque is 73 meters wide. This mosque dates back to 1483 years. During the Roman rule in Turkey, this was a church that later became a holy place of worship. This mosque has excellent architecture, and there are many pieces of literature, arts, mosaics present, which shows the richness of ancient times.
- Sultanahmet Mosque, Istanbul: This mosque is also called Turkey's blue mosque. It is present in Istanbul. The mosque's dimensions are the length of this mosque is 73 meters, the height of this mosque is 43 meters, and the width is 65 meters. This site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The inscription on this mosque is of 1985. In 2006, Pope Benedict XVI visited the mosque. The mosque gallery contains a blue interior made of glass, some Ottoman Sultan Ahmed paintings, and a courtyard.
- Topkapi Palace, Fatih District: It is a museum located in Fatih District. The construction of this museum started in 1465, and the style of architecture is Ottoman and Baroque. There is a garden, some low buildings, and a courtyard present in this museum. The size is estimated to be 592,600 to 700,000 square meters. This museum also comes under UNESCO's World Heritage Sites in Turkey.
- Ephesus, Izmir Province: It was an ancient Greek city located under the Izmir province. This city has inscriptions and evidence of an ancient Greek settlement founded in the 10th century and later left alone in the 15th century. The main reason why this city was famous is because of the Temple of Artemis, which dates back to 550 BC. It comes under one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Museums are a palace where everyone loves to visit irrespective of their age. Museums are where many ancient arts, literature, leaders, science, and other such things are displayed. There are many museums in this country with different categories of exhibiting. These museums are not for free. Therefore, a minimal amount is required to purchase an entry ticket. You can also rent a guide who can speak English and can help you by exploring these museums and gaining knowledge in detail.
- Adana Archaeological Museum, Seyhan: It is a museum in Adana which exhibits various heritages of Cilicia. This museum first opened in 1919. The area of this museum is 588,000 square feet. The museum's gallery shows women figurines of Terra Cota of the bronze age, Hittite mask, and historical artifacts. The museum mainly consists of artifacts of the Hittite period.
- Afyonkarahisar Archaeological Museum, Afyonkarahisar: It is a museum which is present in Afyonkarahisar. It is an archeological museum. It has a collection of the bronze age, copper age, Hittites, Phyrigians, Ancient Greeze Ottoman Empire. It has 13,276 archeological collections, 4484 ethnographical collections, 26 archived documents, 33 ancient handwritten books, and 26,564 coins. It shows that this museum has a lot to exhibit.
- Alanya Archaeological Museum, Alanya: This museum is present in Alanya. This museum started working in 1967, and further, it saw renovations in 2012. It has many bronzes, marble, and glass pieces of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. There are many things to see, including demonstrating an early village and equipment types.
- Baksı Museum, Bayburt: This museum is near the Black sea. It is located in Bayburt and spreads over an area of 30 hectares. It includes exhibition halls, a library which contains books of history, guesthouses to accommodate for a short period. It is an art museum where there are many art forms in paintings, canvases, and other such paintings and artists' names. There are various literature books present in this museum. The Baksi museum's main aim is to collect and present art forms in multiple styles to visitors.
- Bursa Energy Museum, Osmangazi District: It is a unique museum located in the Osmangazi district. This museum is dedicated to technology and electricity, attracting many visitors because of its unique exhibition and category. It shows historical references of electricity about its creation and when and how it reached Turkey. Other than this, we can say that this museum is a tribute to electricity.
- Doner Kebab: Doner Kebab is a dish that consists of meat, and it gives a unique taste after grilling over the fire. Cooking over the fire helps in preserving the necessary nutrition. The nutrition also come from the seasonings of spices and all sorts of herbs. It is traditionally served with garlic, salad, and spicy sauces. One of the best places to get Doner Kebab in Turkey is at Süha’nın Yeri in Ankara.
- Pide: It is a Turkish pizza that originated in Turkey. It is an ideal dish for both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. It has a base of pastry topped with limitless toppings. The toppings are usually vegetables and different kind of meat. You can choose both or either.
- Baklava: It is a pastry with nuts filling. It became popular in the Ottoman Empire and is one of the famous Turkish dishes. Baklava is available almost everywhere in Turkey. The most famous is Hafiz Mustafa's Baklava. The best way to taste it is when it comes fresh out of the oven.
- Kofte: They are meatballs that originated in Turkey. These Turkish kofte come in different shapes and sizes, and you can eat them with salad or rice. In street stalls, both versions are available. More variants are also available in Turkey, but it depends on the different regions. Like in Izgara, kofte comes with bread, rice, and grilled pepper, whereas Cig Kofte has raw ingredients.
- Meze: In Turkey, meze consists of white cheese, sliced melon, eggplant salad, and hot pepper paste with walnuts. It comes along with either thick strained yogurt with herbs or yogurt with cucumber salad. Meze also comes with bread and drink options. You can choose the type of yogurt, bread, and drink according to your preference.
- Advocaat: It is traditionally a Dutch beverage. It is an alcoholic beverage with an alcohol content of approximately 14% to 20%. It contains a mixture of egg yolks, brandy, sugar, and vanilla. Sometimes, some locals add honey and cream to sweeten it and give it an extra texture to enhance the taste.
- Boza: It is a fermented Turkish drink with yeast and cracked wheat as its primary ingredients. If we look at the taste, it tastes a bit tangy and sweet. It is a winter drink and has a consistency of a smoothie. Traditionally this drink has corn, barley, wheat, and rice. It is a highly nutritious Turkish drink.
- Şalgam Sayu: The English translation of this dish is a pickled-turnip. The base ingredient used is a turnip. They mix salt and water with a turnip to make a simple pickle. If we look at the taste, it tastes tangy. It has a water-like consistency. The color is usually red or dark red, which it gets from black carrots.
- Witbier: It is a drink which has an ancient origin, and to date, the locals use the traditional way to make it. As per the texture, it is a pale, crisp, and cloudy drink. Like other Belgium drinks, it has a smooth consistency. It tastes malty sweet and has a very little or sometimes no hop taste. Some people preferably add coriander and orange zest to give it a more citric flavor to improve the taste.
The quality of tap water mostly depends on the city and areas. For the most part tap water in this country is not fit for drinking. There are a lot of pollutants which gets dissolved in water, making it unfit for drinking. A high amount of chlorine is added to water to clean it, but it pollutes the city. This country's tap water is usable for other purposes like brushing, cleaning, laundry work, and other daily chores. The reason behind the water pollution is because of the untreated water which regularly flows from industries. However, you can use bottles of water readily available at every corner of this country. The main problem with buying plastic bottles will be increasing plastic use and increasing carbon footprints. So it is advised that you must use a single bottle made up of suitable plastic or metal. If you opt for living in an apartment, you can call a reputed water dealer for drinking water supply, you can also install an R.O water purifier, but that could be too costly for you. The best option is to establish a reverse osmosis filter, which can last up to one year. The primary source of tap water in this city is groundwater, but due to an immense population growth which reached a shortage of water; therefore, you must not use wastewater.
There are many activities available in this country. This city offers activities of many types, including visiting museums, beaches, artistic monuments, and various other sports activities. Activities, include visiting museums, artistic monuments, beaches, and gardens, involve fitness and knowledge. Visiting various museums and cultural monuments provides you knowledge about the ancient people and their lifestyle, which will help you understand this city's culture and traditions. You can very well connect with local peoples if you know the culture and traditions of that city.
- Water sports like kayaking, scuba diving, surfing etc
- Visiting National Parks
- Visiting Museums
- Safari Tour
- Bungee Jumping
The Turkish cities have various accommodation options for tourists, depending on the facilities and luxury you need. There are many budget-friendly options available. Green hotels, hostels and guest houses, apartments, and camping are the four categories of accommodations available in this country. You can adopt any accommodation option, but you should remember that you should use eco-friendly measures and be a responsible tourist.
Green hotels are different from typical hotels as they get a certificate from the state government. These hotels adopt eco-friendly methods in the hotel premises as much as possible. Eco-friendly methods include the usage of dustbins at every corner of the hotel. The soap and shampoos have organic substances. Other than this, they always promote greenery all over the premises by planting trees, flowers, and small plants. These hotels generate their electricity by using renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar power. The bedsheets and towels are natural materials like cotton, as Turkey's government promotes green and eco-friendly measures to reduce pollution and other issues. These hotels are present in every city and are preferred by many tourists because of its support and backing. These hotels allow many facilities such as Wi-Fi enabled rooms, clean and hygienic bathroom, help desk services with room service, and one complimentary meal of your choice. They also have a swimming pool to relax, an indoor sports area for carom, table tennis and others, a fitness center, a big garden with trees for fresh air.
Hostels and Guest Houses
Hostels and Guesthouses are best for those traveling alone because hostel rooms and guest houses are better than hotel rooms. These rooms cost less than hotel rooms because budget-friendly hotel rooms come with only necessary facilities such as electricity, water, etc. Hostels help you make friends as many of the hostel rooms present in Turkey provide a shared space. Some of the hostel house complimentary breakfast in the morning. Remember that you must check out their rules and regulations before checking in any hostel. There is a time limitation in some hostels that you won't be allowed to enter after that. If you got a shared room and didn't know your roommate and its behavior, you must be careful of theft or scams.
Turkish guesthouses, on the other hand, provide the guests with total privacy. These places are ideal for people traveling with their family, friends, or partner. You will find that they are fully-equipped with all sorts of appliances, furniture, utensils, electronics, security, etc. You can live here independently without any disturbance. Usually, these guesthouses come in different price ranges. The price depends on the location, facilities, furnishing, and other factors. You can opt for buying or renting out a guesthouse. Renting is a more convenient method and will save a lot of money.
If you plan to stay in the country for an extended period of time, you can live in an apartment on rent or book an Air bnb. This type of accommodation only fits when the visiting period is more than 30 days. Living in an apartment makes us independent in various aspects like all the work, including cleaning, dusting, and washing makes a person self-reliant. The privacy given in apartments is very high as the flat you get will only belong to you. You must always choose the best floor so that you will be able to enjoy the fresh air with your loved ones.
Couchsurfing means to stay at someone's house and, in exchange, helping him with his daily work. Couchsurfing is not common because most people do not love it. You can find hosts ready for Couchsurfing online, or other than that, you can even ask people if they know anyone. The crime rate of this city is also low, which allows safe and scam-free Couchsurfing.
Camping in this country happens very rarely; therefore, you won't find much of the camping grounds. Different accommodation options are budget-friendly and are easily affordable by anyone. However, you can do this for fun and adventure for two to three days. You must not camp in bad weather as it may cause you trouble. Besides this, you should avoid bonfire as it causes too much smoke, instead use a battery-electric heater. Summer might require some extra care from mosquitoes and fleas. Camping can be very adventurous. Many studies show that sleeping in nature can result in better sleep, and your body will feel more relaxed.
|Aegean Turkey |
Greek and Roman ruins between azure sea on one side and silvery olive groves on the other
|Black Sea Turkey |
Heavily forested mountains offering great outdoor sports such as trekking and rafting
|Central Anatolia |
Tree-poor central steppes with the national capital, Hittite and Phrygian ruins, and moon-like Cappadocia
|Eastern Anatolia |
High and mountainous eastern part with harsh winters
|Marmara (region) |
The most urbanized region with Byzantine and Ottoman monuments in some of the country's greatest cities like Istanbul.
|Mediterranean Turkey |
Mountains clad with pine woods ascending right from the heavily-indented coastline of the crystal clear sea
|Southeastern Anatolia |
Semi-desert Middle-Easternmost part of the country
- Istanbul — Turkey's largest city, the former capital of both the Ottoman and Byzantine Empires, and the only major city in the world to straddle two continents.
- Ankara — the capital of Turkey and its second largest city.
- Antalya — the fastest growing city, hub to an array of beach resorts.
- Bodrum — a trendy coastal town in Southern Aegean which turns into a crowded city in season when it serves as a playground for Turkish and international holidaymakers alike, featuring a citadel, Roman ruins, trendy clubs and a number of villages surrounding the peninsula each with a different character from classy to rustic.
- Edirne — the second capital of the Ottoman Empire.
- Izmir — Turkey's third largest city, hub to an array of beach resorts.
- Konya — a quite large city that is the heartland of mystic Sufi order, the site of Rumi's tomb, and with some elegant Seljuq architecture, all surrounded by vast steppes.
- Trabzon — the wonderful Sumela Monastery is just outside the city and it is a great gateway to exploring the Turkish Northeast.
- Urfa — a city with beautiful architecture and extremely friendly locals at the gates of Eastern World; where Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic, and Persian cultures mingle.
Getting There and Moving Around
There are various ways to reach Turkey. You will find that since Turkey is present in Europe, there are different international transport services available. Airways are usually the only global travel option, but you can use the international buses, trains, and even rental cars in Turkey. It is because some European countries are open to international travel. You can use these international transport options only if you are present in Europe. If you are present in any European city, you can visit a major city and book a bus route leading you to Turkey. If you are not present in Europe, then airways are the best option. Some international waterways, but the boat operators can work illegally or smuggling drugs and other illegal items. It is the reason why channels are not a great option.
Turkey is a famous tourist city; therefore, the transportation systems are well-maintained to meet local and tourists' requirements. You will find that buses, trains, trams, metros, bicycles, rental cars, and hitchhiking are some ways to move around Turkey. You will find that moving around Turkey is not very challenging. It is because the locals are very amiable and often love helping out tourists. These transports range in prices as they depend on the distance you travel.
There are many airports present in Turkey. These airports have flights connecting to different cities of the world. You will find that the major international airports serve several airlines and are easy to reach. While booking a flight to Turkey, you should prefer a direct one. It is because direct flights help in creating less pollution and saving your time. A single aircraft causes a massive increase in pollution when it flies from one city to another. While transfer flights are cheap and various discounts are available with them; you must not prefer them. These transfer flights often travel to two to three cities before reaching the final destination. Thus, you should avoid transfer flights at all costs. You can also opt for domestic flights to travel to cities within Turkey but that will just increase your carbon footprint.
Primarily, there are two types of buses available in Turkey. The first one is the international bus service that runs across borders and crosses different countries. The second type is domestic buses that only operate inside the country. You will find that international buses are grand for exploring Europe, while domestic buses only focus on places inside the country. You can get some great offers while buying the tickets for these buses. These offers often include various amenities that you can avail of during or after the journey. You will find that both types of buses are very efficient in reaching different parts of Turkey and Europe.
Both international and domestic train systems are available in Turkey. There are only a few international trains that run across the Turkish borders. You will find that these trains are great for exploring Europe while enjoying the scenery and food cuisines of the cities you visit. These trains are a bit expensive as they provide separate cabins, breakfast, lunch, dinner, and washroom facilities to the travelers. The cost of all these services is present on the ticket when you buy it.
On the other hand, domestic trains are excellent for visiting different areas and regions in turkey. These trains are quite common among the locals as they are very cheap and convenient. You can meet many locals and fellow tourists on these trains, befriend them and create memorable times.
Hitchhiking is possible in Turkey because the locals are amiable, and they will help you in any way possible. You will find that getting a lift from a stranger on the highway or road is not as challenging as hitchhiking is in other cities of the world. The drivers often stop for hitchhikers and even other cars that need help. The only thing you need to do for hitchhiking properly in Turkey is to be present on the road connecting to the city you want to reach. Usually, the drivers will stop and give you a lift, but if anyone is unable to, he or she will help you out with some cash or food to use while hitchhiking.
Other ways of traveling and moving around Turkey include waterways and roadways. You will find that rivers are not always legal; therefore, you must discover if the boating company has proper traveling documents and certification or not. Roadways include motorized and electronic vehicles. You must prefer electronic cars as cheaper to hire and do not emit harmful gases like motorized vehicles. These electronic vehicles are available for hire with or without a driver.
Sustainable shopping is not a new trend. The concept of sustainable shopping is decades old. Many people in the world started realizing the need to use organic and chemical-free products since the beginning of the century. You will find that it provides health benefits and helps in supporting local small and medium scale businesses. There are many flea markets, food markets, second-hand stores, and eco-fashions shops present in Turkey. The food markets are run by local farmers, hawkers, gardeners, fishers, bakers, and butchers. The products here are fresh and organic. Food markets only operate on specific days of the week. It is because the problem of over-fishing is common in Turkey. These markets work on particular days of the week to provide fresh produce. Flea markets are also great places to find all types of items, including fruits, vegetables, dishes, and second-hand items. They, too, are run by locals and promote supporting the locals' businesses.
Recycling is prevalent in Turkey as it is in other European countries. The locals slowly realize the need to use recycled items; therefore, recycling will finally affect Turkey's full effect. You will find that there are various recycling units present in different Turkish cities. You can visit them to either recycle your waste or buy some recycled items. Recycling is an excellent way to keep your carbon footprint in control and avoid contributing to a country's increasing pollution levels. As a tourist, you must prefer recycling or reusing items as much as possible. It will help you in becoming responsible and gaining respect from the locals.
The waste management system in Turkey is not very efficient. The reason for its insufficiency is because many locals often litter public areas with trash. Also, many industries in the country release unfiltered water into the water bodies. The government and the cities' municipalities have set-up various garbage disposal units and various prohibitions that both the locals and the tourists must follow. People who don't dispose of the waste properly or fail to follow the waste management policies often get heavy penalization. While visiting and exploring Turkey, try to dispose of your waste correctly and not indulge in any activity that increases pollution levels.
Work and Study Abroad
There are some excellent education and career opportunities available in Turkey. Turkey homes some world-renowned institutes and organizations that are open to both locals and foreigners. You will find that the educational institutes offer various scholarships and programs to international students. You can avail them by either contacting the administration of the institute or by visiting it. Only after clearing the required tests, you can get admission to these institutes. There are some multinational organizations present in Turkey. These organizations are always open to employing foreigners. Various job options usually involve conversing in English or Arabic.
The student exchange program is a global program that connects almost all educational universities and boards worldwide. The program's main aim is to provide a dynamic environment for the students by providing them educational opportunities in different countries. Since student exchange is a global program, you can opt for donations to become a part. Another way to become a part of the program is only available if you are excellent in your studies.
Au pairing is possible in Turkey, but its prevalence is not that much. It is because Turkey homes Islamic families and these families are very conservative. You will find that most Turkish families never look for housemaids or servants. It is because the women of the families have the responsibility of the whole house. The chances of finding au pairing opportunities are better with wealthy families as they often hire different servants to take care of their home and children. You must create a friendly and trustworthy image in front of these families to become an au pair.
Volunteering is common all over the world. It is perhaps why the present generations become aware of the various societal, political, environmental, and health issues. Many volunteering organizations and groups present aim to improve the living standards of the people and Turkey a safe and beautiful place for tourists. You can participate in these organizations' activities and show your gratitude to the locals for their hospitality and help.